THE STATE EXECUTIVE & LEGISLATURE

INTRODUCTION


    India has a federal form of government, which means that there are two levels of   government one at the centre and another in the states and union territories. Each state has a legislature, a governer and the council of ministers headed by the Chief Minister.

THE GOVERNOR    

The Governor is the Head of the State. All executive powers of the State government are vested in him. The position of the Governor in a State is similar to that of the President at the Centre. His power are actually exercised by the Council of Minister headed by the Chief Minister.

(a)    Qualifications :
*     Any citizen of India
*     35 years of age or above

(b)    Appointment
*     The Governor is appointed by the President of india on the advice of the Council of Minister.
*     The President can appoint a person as the Governor of more than one state.

(c)    Oath
*     The oath of office is administrated to the Governor by the Chief justice of the concerned High Court.

(d)    Term and Removal
*     The term of the Governor is for five years. However, he holds office during the "pleasure" of the President and can be removed from office even before the expiry of his term.    
*     The Chief Justice of the concerned High Court or in his absence the seniormost judge of the high court discharges the duties of the office of a Governor if it falls vacant due to death or resignation of the

Governor.
(e)    Powers and Functions :
*     The Governer performs a number of functions. He has vast power to be exercised during normal   times as well as in emergencies.
*     These powers, however, are actually exercise by the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers.

(i)    Exective Powers :
*     He appoints the Chief Minister. He also appoints other members of the Council of Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
*     He appoints the Advocate General, the Chairman and members of the State Public Service Commission. 
*     He is consulted by the President of India for the appointment of judges of the High Court.

(ii)    Legislative Powers :
*     The Governer has significant legislative power. He summons and prorogues the sessions of the State Legislature.
*     He addresses the first session of the Legislature after every election and its first session every year. He can dissolve the State Assembly before the expiry of its full term.
*     He can issue ordinances. A bill passed by the state Legislature  can become a law only after the Governor assent to it.

(iii)    Emergency Powers :
*     The Governor exercise important power, during emergency which is also known as President's Rule.
*     During emergency period the Governor practically runs the State government.

THE CHIEF MINISTER AND COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

       The Constitution provides for a Council of Ministers headed by the Chief  Minister to aid and advice the Governor in the exercise of his powers.
*     The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor. The Governor has to appoint only the leader of the majority  party in the assembly as the Chief Minister. If no single party gets t
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