• The preamble, contains the ideals and basic principles of the Indian constitution. The     Preamble is not a part of the constitution. It is not enforceable by the court of law. still the Preamble serves as the guiding light of the Constitution.
  • The Preamble remained uncharged till 1976. In 1976 the words 'Socialist', ‘Secular’ and 'Unity and Integrity of the Nation' were added through 42nd constitutional Amendmend Act.

(a)     A detailed written Constitution :

  • The constitution of India is the most detailed Constitution in the world. The Constitution was divided into 22parts , 395 Article and 8 Schedules. Presently it contains over 440 Articles and 12 Schedules
  • No other Constitution has gone into such minute details as the Indian constitution. Besides the govermental structure at the central, state and local levels, the Constitution elaborates upon citizenship, rights and duties of the people, directive principles of state policy, union-state relations, trade and commerce, services, elections , emergency provisions and representations.

(b)    A Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic :
(i)    Sovereign :

  *       India is free from external control. internally, India can frame or form its own policies.

(ii)    Democratic : 

 *        It means that in India, the partical power is vested in the people and is exercised by representatives who are elected by them. Every citizen of India who is 18 years of age of whichever cast or religion  enjoys all the political rights.

(iii)    Republic :

  *       It means that the head of the State, i.e., the President is elected by the people.

  *       The President is not a hereditary ruler like the British monarch

(iv)    Socialist :

  *       It was added in the preamble by 42nd amendment of the constitution. It means that administration in India should be run in      such a way as to ensure equal distribution of wealth among all the classes  of  people and there should be equal opportunities for development.

(v)    Secular :

 *       It was also added in the preamble by 42nd amendment of the constitution. Which was passed in 1976.

 *       It means every citizen has a right to profess, practice and propogate any religion. There can be no discrimination among citizens on the basis of the religion.     

(d)    Federal Features :
*   In a fedral government, there are two sets of governments. The union(as we call in India) government and the state governments. The constitution specifies to both the sets of governments clearly marked the areas of functioning.
*    The Constitution of India does not use the term'Federal'. It says India is a 'Union of States'.
*    The Constitution clearly mentions the subjects on which the central and the state governments can pass laws. This is called divison of power between the centre and the state governments.

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