FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS CLASS 10TH
* Part III of the Constitution (Article 12-35) deals with the Fundamental Rights granted to individuals.
* These rights were finalized by a committee of the Constituent Assembly headed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
* These rights are described as fundamental because they are superior to ordinary laws.
* These are vital for the full development of the human personality, promoting an individual's dignity and welfare.
* The Constitution guarantees 'six' fundamental rights and these form a very important part of the Constitution.
These fundamental rights as mentioned in the constitution are the following :
(A) Right to Equality
(B) Right to Freedom
(C) Right Against Exploitation
(D) Right to Freedom of Religion
(E) Cultural and Educational Rights
(F) Right to Constitutional Remedies
(A) Rights to Equality (Article 14 to 18) :
* The constitution guarantees that all citizens will be equally protected by the laws of the country.
* It means that the state cannot discriminate against a citizen on the basis of race, caste, sex, religion, or place of birth.
* The state also cannot discriminate against anyone in matters of employment. All citizen can apply for government jobs.
* Right to equality in our constitution has also abolished the practice of untouchability (Article 17).
* The Constitution has abolished titles except military and academic ones.
(B) Right to Freedom (Article 19 to 22) :
* The right to freedom is actually a cluster of the following six freedoms :
(i) the right to speech and expression;
(ii) the right to assemble peaceably and without arms;
(iii) the right to form associations or unions.
(iv) the right to move freely throughout the territory of India;
(v) the right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of india; and
(vi) the right to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
(C) Right Against Exploitation (Article 23 &24) :
* Earlier, sometimes people were made to do work free of charge for landloards or other wealthy persons.
This was called begar or forced labour because it was labour done without any wage in return. Begar now is a crime and punishable by law (Article 23).
* The Constitution forbids employing of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous jobs like factories and mines (Article 24).
Right against exploitation is a legal weapon to protect today children. It is a legal weapon because, if this right is violated one can go to the court of law to get justice.
(D) Right to freedom of Religion (Article 25 to 28) :
* Right to freedom of religion provides religious freedom to all the citizens of India.
* All religions are equal before the state and no religion will be given preference over the other.
Citizens are free to practise their respective religions.
* Religious co