• Among these Rights of Child, some major rights can be to ensure:

(A)  The child’s inherent Rights of life, without discrimination of race, colour, sex, language, religion, nationality, etc.;
(B)   the child’s right to be cared by his/her parents. Child should not be separated from his/her parents.

        In the event of the child’s adoption, the best interest of child shall be of the paramount consideration;
(C)   the right of a child to education directed towards the development of child’s personality;
(D)  the child’s right to conscience, religion and to be with his/her community and culture;
(E)  the child’s right of free expression and freedom of association and peaceful assembly;
(F)  protection of children from all forms of physical or mental violence, exploitation and abuse, narcotics use, torture or inhuman punishment;
(G) the right of a child to social security and standard of living adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.


  • Labourers below the age of 14 years of age are called child labourers.

(a)    Causes of Child Labour

  • Children are cheap source of labour. Their inability to protest against their employers makes them preferable labourers.
  • The main reason behind child labour is poverty. Children are forced to work early in their life. They work not only for their own survival,
  • but also for their family. In such poor conditions, children are seen as extra hands of earnings to improve their household income.
  • Indebtedness also compels poor parents to get their children employed as domestic servants, agricultural workers and daily wage earners.
  • Street children, who are either orphans or have run away from their homes due to domestic violence or poverty, have no option but to work in order to feed and clothe themselves.

(b)    Constitutional Provisions to prevent Child Labour

  • For the protection and development of children, the Constitution of India has made the following provisions:
  • No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or in any hazardous employment.
  • Childhood and youth are to be protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.
  • The state shall endeavour to provide free elementary education to all children till
  • they complete the age of 14 years (Article 45 of the Indian Constitution).
  • Article 51A of the Indian Constitution calls upon parents to provide opportunities for
  • education to their children between the ages of six and fourteen years.


  • Better health services, rise in the standard of living,
  • and increase in life expectancy, have enhanced the number of aged people worldwide.
  • As a result, old age problems have become social problems.
  • To emphasis this issue, the United Nations declared 1999 as the ‘Year of Older Persons”,
  • which was also observed in India. It extended this declaration to the year 2000 also.
  • The emerging nuclear family is another factor which has added to their agony of neglect the elder,
  • older or aged find themselves out of place and neglected, especially when they are in need of more care and attention.
  • To address the concerns of aged, Government of India announced the National Policy for Older Persons (NPOP) in 1999.

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