NCERT 10th CLASS CIVICS CHAPTER INDIAN CONSTITUTION

INTRODUCTION

A Country needs a government which will run according to certain set of rules and regulations. A Constitution is a body of law and rules according to which a country is governed. It is superior to all other laws of the country. It is the supreme law. It decides the composition and function of government. It also gives power and functions of a government. It defines the rights and duties of the citizen and regulates the relation between citizens and states. It performs the dual function of regulating the government as well as safe guarding the rights of the citizen.

THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

(a)    How was it Framed ?

  • The Nehru Report (1928) was the first attempt by Indians to frame a full fledged constitution of India.
  • According to the suggestions made by the Cabinet Mission elelctions for the 296 seats assigned to the British - Indian provinces were completed by July - August 1946.
  • With the independence of India, the Constituent assembly became a fully sovereign body. The Assembly started working from the ninth - day of December 1946.
  • The Constitutent assembly had members belonging to different communities and regions of India.
  • There were more than 30 members from scheduled castes as well.
  • Anglo Indian community was represented by Frank Anthony while Parsis were represented by H.P.Modi
  • Sarojini Naidu and Vijaylakshmi Pandit were important women members.
  • Sachidanand Sinha was the first President of the Constituent Assembly. Dr.Rajendra Prasad was the first elected president of the constituent Assembly. A Drafting commitee was appointed to draft the Constitution. Dr B.R.Ambedkar(also known as the architect of the Indian constitution) was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
  • The Constituent Assembly met for 166 days spread over a period of 2 years, 11months and 18 days.The Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949.
  • The provisions relating to citizenship, elections, provisional parliament, temporary and traditional provisions came into force with immediate effects , i.e. from November26,1949. the rest of the constitution came into force on January 26,1950.

 PREAMBLE

    WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
    JUSTICE. social , economic and political.
    LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief , faith and worship.
    EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all :
    FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integirty of the nation IN OUR CONSTITUENT  ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND  GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.