Indo-Pak Relations :

  1. Pakistan came into being as a result of the unfortunate partition of the British India.
  2. The partition of the country was accompanied by the worst kind of communal riots which left a lot of bitterness.
  3. The basic difference in the development of two types (Pakistan, an Islamic state and India a secular democratic state) of
  4. political systems often promotes lack of confidence in both the countries.
  5. The second and the main reason has been the difference between India and Pakistan on the issue of Kashmir.
  6. Whereas Kashmir is an integral part of India, Pakistan treats it as a disputed territory.
  7. In 1947, Pakistan tried to force Kashmir to accede to it by sending invaders.
  8. But, Kashmir acceded to India, and Indian troops forced the invaders to withdraw from most of Kashmir.
  9. The UN negotiated a ceasefire, but Pakistan refused to recognise Kashmir’s accession to India.
  10. Another Indo-Pak war over Kashmir in 1965 also ended through UN mediation.
  11. India defeated Pakistan in the third Indo-Pak war in 1971, which led to the birth of Bangladesh.
  12. By the Shimla Agreement of 1972, India and Pakistan resolved to respect the international border and,
  13. in case of Kashmir, the Line of Control (LOG) as in December 1971. They also agreed to settle all bilateral issues peacefully.
  14. After 1972, Pakistan supported terrorist activities in Punjab and Kashmir.
  15. Pakistan also sent intruders across the LOG in 1999. This led to the Kargil conflict,
  16. and the intruders were ultimately forced to withdraw.
  17. There was a terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament in 2001.
  18. But, since 2003, both countries have taken steps to improve bilateral relations.

(a)    Peace Efforts:

  •  Tashkent Declaration of 1966
  •  Simla Agreement of 1972
  •  Bus Diplomacy in 2000
  •  Agra Summit in 2001

    India-China Relations:

  1. India was one of the first countries to recognise the People’s Republic of China.
  2. The Sino-lndian agreement of 1954, based on the Panchsheel, recognised China’s authority over Tibet.
  3. India also supported China’s admission into the UN.
  4. Dispute over definition of the India-Tibet border, China’s claims over some Indian territories
  5.  India’s granting of asylum to the Dalai Lama and Chinese intrusions into India led to a Sino-lndian war in 1962.
  6. China-Pakistan closeness, India’s nuclear test in 1974 and Sikkim’s absorption into India further strained Sino-lndian relations.
  7. Sino-lndian relations have now improved. Though China resented India’s nuclear tests in
  8. 1998, it supported India in the Kargil conflict of 1999 and condemned the terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament in 2001.
  9. India-Bangladesh Relations :
  10. India played a major role in liberating Bangladesh from Pakistan. In 1972,
  11. India and Bangladesh concluded a treaty of cooperation, friendship and peace based on the Panchsheel, Nonalignment, Secularism and Socialism.
  12. After the government of Sheikh Mujibur Rehman was overthrown in 1975, the relation between India and Bangladesh have worsened.

(a)    Points of Conflict

  • The disagreement over the distribution of Ganga waters after the making of the barrage of Far
    Read More