LOCAL GOVERNMENT CLASS 10
- The Government of India works of three levels. It is difficult for the government to operate from a single point.
- It has to divide its task at various levels – The central level, the state level and the local level.
- The local level means the government in village, town or city.
- In this three tier system at the village level, we have the Gram Panchayat.
- At the block level we have panchayat samiti. Above the Panchayat Samiti we have Zila Parishad.
- The vision of Mahatma Gandhi, to empower the villages has been translated into a reality through the three tier system of the Panchayati Raj.
- A federal government has two or more tiers of governments.
- In India initially we had only two levels of government i.e.
- Central and the State. But a vast country like India cannot be run only through these two -tiers.
- States in India are as large as independent countries of Europe. Many of these States are internally very diverse.
- Thus there is a need for power sharing within these states.
- This is the rationale for decentralisation of power.
- Thus resulted a third-tier of government, called local government.
- A local government is an institution which is constituted to look into
- local problems and to provide bare amenities to the people of a village, a town or a city.
- Article 40 under the Directive Principles of State Policy directs the State “to organise village Panchayats as units of self-Government”.
- On October 2,1953 a network of National Extension Services (NES) for rural development was created.
- In 1992, 73rd Amendment Act, gave constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj institutions.
- It created the third tier of federalism in India, below the Central government level and the State government level.
- The objective of this Amendment was to make democracy more powerful and effective by giving power to the grass-roots units of self-government.
(A) Zila Parishads Municipal Corporation
(B) Block Samitis Municipal Councils
(C) Panchayats Muncipalities
LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN RURAL INDIA
- The Panchayati Raj is also an important form of the local government in the rural areas.
- The panchayati Raj is a three-tier system.
- It has Panchayats at the root or village level,
- Block Samitis at the block level and the Zila Parishads at the district level.
- Village Panchayts are the basic units of Panchayati Raj.
- The Block Samiti or the Prakhand Samiti is the second layer of the three-tier system of Panchayati Raj.
- The Zila Parishad or the District Council is the top layer in the three-tier system of Panchayati Raj.
- All the three institutions together look after the needs and problems of the rural areas and they are together called the Panchayati Raj.
Almost all big villages in India have a Gram Sabha, a Gram Panchayat and a Nyaya Panchayat.
(a) The Gram Sabha
- All adult men and women in a village are the me