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REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS

REPRODUCTION
    Reproduction is the ability of living organisms to produce new organisms similar to them. It is one of the important characteristic of life.
(a)    Importance of Reproduction:
    (i)    It is an important characteristic of living organisms.
    (ii)    It is an essential life process which helps in survival of species.
    (iii)    It helps im maintaining continuity of the race and group immortality.
(b)    Types of Reproduction: Production of offsprings by a single parent without the formation and fusion of gametes is called as asexual reproduction.
    
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
    Types of Asexual Reproduction: Asexual reproduction takes place in the following principle ways:
(a)    Fission: It is the simplest form of reproduction in which unicellular organism either divides into two or many organsims.
    It is also divided into two types
    (i)    Binary fission: It is a type of reproduction in which nuclear division is followed by the appearance of a constriction in the cell membrane, which gradually deeppens inward and divides the cytoplasm into two parts, each with one nucleus. Finally two daughter cells are formed e.g. Amoeba.

    

   (ii)    Multiple fission: Sometimes the nucleus divides several times, into many daughter nuclei. The daughter nuclei arrange at the periphery of the parent cell, and a bit of cytoplasm around each daughter nuclei is present. Nucleus develops an outer membrane. Finally the multinucleated body divides into many daughter cells. e.g. Plasmodium.

        
(b)    Budding: Formation of a daughter individual from a small projection which is called as bud, arising on the parent body is called as budding.

       
(c)    Fragmentation: It is a type of reproduction or the regeneration ability of the organism to replace their lost part. In this process an entire new organism can grow from certain pieces or cells of the parent organisms. e.g. Flatworm like Planari.

    

(d)    Spore formation: It is a process of reproduction most commonly found in fungi, some cocci and bacillus bacteria. During this process a structure called as sporangium is formed. In this structre nucleus divides several times and each nucleus with a little trace of cytoplasm forms a spore. These spores are then liberated out and develop into a new hyphae, e.g. Rhizopus.

Reproduction in Hydra :

  • In this method an outgrowth (bud) is formed on the parent organism.
  • The bud gradually grows in size and gets detached from the parent.
  • Detached bud develops into an adult organism, similar to the parent
  • Other example :- Yeast

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
    Reproduction resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes is called sexual reproduction.
OR
    The type of reproduction in which fusion of male & female gamete occur is called sexual reproduction.

Important features of sexual reproduction are given below :
(i)    It involves two different parents i.e. one male and one female.
(ii)    Each parent produces gametes.
(iii)    Male gametes are called sperms while female gametes are called ova or eggs.
(iv)    The fusion of male and female gametes is called fertilization. It results in to the formation of a single diploid cell zygote.
(v)    The zygote undergoes repeated mitotic divisions to form embryo which differentiate to form full organism.
(vi)    The organisms produced in this type of reproduction are genetically different from both the parents and can resemble in certain features with parents. 

Differences between sexual and Asexual reproduction :
Types of animals on the basis of presence of sex organs : 
    (a) Unisexual Animals : 
    Those animals in which male and female sexes remain separate e.g. Human beings,

...
Cat, Dog.
    (b) Bisexual Animals :
·    Those animals in which male and female sex organs are present in single body are called bisexual or hermaphrodite e.g. Earthworm, Taenia  solium, Leech 

HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Male Reproductive organs : The male reproductive system of humans consists of the following organs. 
(1) Testes    (2) Vas deferens     (3) Urethra       (4) Penis    
1.     Testes : There is a pair of testes which lie outside the body within the scrotum. They produce millions of sperms.

2.    Vas deferens : Vas deferens are two in numbers. This duct connects each testis to the urethra. It carries sperms to the urethra alongwith the secretion of reproductive glands. This mixture of sperms and secretions is called semen.

3.     Urethra : The two vas deferens open into the urethra and pass through the penis.

4.     Penis : Urethra leads to a muscular organ called penis. It is used to deliver semen into the vagina of the female during mating. It is used to pass urine as well.
    The main function of testes is to produce sperms.

Sperm : It consists of the following parts : 
    (i) Head    (ii) Neck    (iii) Middle piece    (iv) Tail 

   

    The sexual maturity in human males is attained around the age of 13 to 14 years. Sperms are produced in millions by the testes. They are very small in size. Each sperm consists of a head, a middle piece and a tail. Sperms swim in semen with the help of a tail.

Female Reproductive Organ : The female reproductive system of humans consists of the following organs.
    (1) Ovaries          (2) Oviduct (fallopian tube)         (3) Uterus           (4) Vagina

     
1.     Ovaries : There are two ovaries which are situated in the abdominal cavity. Each ovary produces one mature ovum (egg) every month by a process called ovulation. Like sperm, an egg is also a single cell.        

2.     Oviduct (fallopian tube) : It is a muscular tube which joins the uterus with the ovary. It carries the ovum into the uterus.

3.     Uterus : It is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ. The development of the baby takes place inside it. The lower narrow part of the uterus is called cervix.       

4.     Vagina : The uterus opens into a wide muscular tube called vagina. The vagina receives the penis during sexual intercourse. The sperms are discharged into the vagina. 

POINTS TO BE REMEMBER
(1)    Asexual reproduction : The type of reproduction in which only a single parent is involved.
(2)     Budding : It is a type of asexual reproduction which can be seen in Hydra. In this reproduction, the new individual develops from the buds.
(3)     Binary fission : It is a type of asexual reproduction which can be seen in Amoeba. In this reproduction, an animal reproduces by dividing into two individuals. 
(4)    The ovary produces female gametes called ova and the testes produce male gametes called sperms.
(5)    The fusion of ovum and sperm is called fertilization. The fertilized egg is called a Zygote.
(6)    The stage of the embryo in which all the body parts are identifiable is called foetus.
(7)    During spring or rainy season, frogs and toads move to ponds and slow flowing streams. When the male and female frog come together in water, the female lays hundreds of eggs. As the eggs are laid, the male deposits his sperms over them.
(8)    Frog's egg is not covered by a shell and they are very delicate. A layer of jelly holds them together and provides protection to the eggs.
(9)    Sperm of frog swims randomly in water with the help of its long tail.
(10)     Each of the gamete contains one half of the hereditary characters from its parent.
    The zygote has one complete set of hereditary characters - one half each from the mother and the father.
 

FERTILIZATION
    The first step in the process of reproduction is the fusion of a sperm and an ovum. Such fusion of the egg and the sperm is called fertilisation. During fertilisation, the nucleui of the sperm and the egg fuse to form a single nucleus. This results in the formation of a fertilised egg or zygote.

   
Development of embryo :
    Fertilization results in the formation of zygote which begins to develop in to an embryo.
    The zygote divides repeatedly to give rise to a ball of cells. The cells then begins to form groups that develop into different tissues and organs of the body. This developing structure is termed as embryo. The embryo attaches itself to the uterus wall with the help of placenta and gets embedded in the wall of the uterus for further development.
    The embryo continues to develop in the uterus. It gradually develops body parts such as hands, legs, head, eyes, ears etc. The stage of the embryo in which all the body parts can be identified is called a foetus.
    During this period of pregnancy, the baby takes nourishment from the mother through the placenta and the umbilical cord. The uterus increases in size as the foetus grows. The uterus is filled with a fluid called amniotic fluid  that protects the foetus from jerks and change in temperature.
    When the development of foetus is complete the mother gives birth to the baby.

Viviparous & Oviparous animals :
    Those animals which give birth to young ones are called viviparous animals. e.g. Man, Dog, Elephants.
    Those animals which lay eggs are called oviparous animals. e.g. Frog, Snake, Lizards, Fish, Butterfly or Moth, Birds.
    Young ones to Adults :
    The new individuals which are born or hatched from the eggs continue to grow till they become adults.
    In some animals, the young ones may look very different from the adults. 
e.g.    Life cycle of silk worm :-
        Egg ® Larva or caterpillar ® Pupa ® Adult
        Life cycle of Frog :
        Egg -->Tadpole (Larva) ® Adult
Metamorphosis : The transformation of the larva into an adult through drastic changes is called metamorphosis.

DOLLY : CLONE
    Cloning is the production of an identical cell or any other living part or a complete organism. Cloning of animal was successfully performed for the first time by Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland. They cloned successfully a sheep named Dolly. Dolly was born on 5th July 1996 and was the first mammal to be cloned. 
    During the process of cloning Dolly, a cell was collected from the mammary gland of a female Finn Dorsett sheep. Simultaneously, an egg was obtained from a Scottish blackface ewe. The nucleus was removed from the egg. Then, the nucleus of the cell from the Finn Dorsett sheep was inserted into the egg of the Scottish blackface  ewe. The egg thus produced was implanted into the Scottish blackface ewe. Development of the egg followed normally and finally Dolly was born. Though Dolly was given birth by the Scottish blackface ewe, it was found to be identical to the Finn Dorsett sheep from which the nucleus was taken. Since the nucleus of the Scottish blackface ewe was removed, Dolly did not show any character of the Scottish blackface ewe. Dolly was a healthy clone and produced several offsprings of her own through normal sexual means. Unfortunately, Dolly died on 14th February 2003 due to a certain lung disease.
    Since Dolly, several attempts have been made to produce cloned mammals. However, many die before birth or die soon after birth. The cloned animals are also found to be born with severe abnormalities.
     

IMPORTANT POINT
1.    Reproduction is the production of new individuals more or less similar to the parent organisms. This may be achieved by a number of means and serves to perpetuate increase of species. 
2.    There are two main methods in which organisms give rise to new individuals - Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.
3.    Asexual reproduction is the process of producing new organism(s) from a single parent without the involvement of sex cells or gametes.
    E.g. : Binary fission in Amoeba, regeneration in planaria, budding in hydra.
4.    Sexual reproduction is the process of prdoucing new organism(s) from two parents with the involvement of sex cells or gametes. Male sexual unit is known as male gamete or sperm while female sexual unit is termed as female gamete or ova.
5.    The fusion of sperm and ovum is known as fertilisation. Thus, the two major processes, i.e., formation of gametes and fusion of gametes constitute sexual reproduction.
6.    The reproductive organs of human beings, i.e., testis in male and ovary in female produce gametes and also secrete hormones like testosterone (male hormone) and estrogen and progesterone (female hormones).
7.    Fertilisation takes place in the fallopian tube. The embryo develops in the uterus, and recceives oxygen nutrients, and so on through the placenta.
8.    Animals such as human beings, cows, dogs which give birth to young ones are called viviparous animals. Animals such as hen, frog, lizard which lay eggs are oviparous animals.
9.    The transformation from the larval stage to the adult stage in the life cycles of frog and insects is called metamorphosis.
10.    The cloning of animals produces offspring with genetic materials whichare identical to the parent. The most famous animal clone is Dolly, the sheep.

NCERT QUESTIONS WITH SOLUTIONS

Q.1    Explain the importance of reproduction in organisms.
Ans.    Reproduction is a biological process through which living organisms produce offspring similar to themselves. Living organisms reproduce to maintain their number and for the continuation of their species. Thus, reproduction ensures the continuation of similar kinds of individuals.

Q.2    Describe the process of fertilization in human beings.
Ans.    Fertilization involves the fusion of the male and the female gamete. The male and the female gametes are released from the male and the female reproductive organs respectively. Sperms or male gametes are released through the male reproductive organ i.e., the penis. These sperms then enter the female body through the vagina. Then, they travel through the fallopian tubes where they meet the eggs. Hence, the process of fertilization takes place in the fallopian tubes.

   

    During fertilization, the haploid nucleus of the sperm and that of the ovum fuse with each other to form the zygote. This zygote divides to form an embryo which in turn develops into a foetus.

Q.3    Choose the most appropriate answer.
    (a) Internal fertilization occurs
        (i) in female body          (ii) outside female body          (iii) in male body         (iv) outside male body
    (b)    A tadpole develops into an adult frog by the process of
        (i) fertilization          (ii) metamorphosis          (iii) embedding        (iv) budding
    (c)    The number of nuclei present in a zygote is 
Ans.         (i) none             (ii) one                 (iii) two            (iv) four
   (a) (i) Internal fertilization occurs in the female body.
    (b) (ii) A tadpole develops into an adult frog by the process of metamorphosis.
    (c) (ii) The number of nuclei present in a zygote is one.

Q.4    Give tow differences between a zygote and a foetus.
Ans.

    
    
Q.5    Define asexual reproduction. Describe two methods of asexual reproduction in animals.
Ans.    Asexual reproduction is amode of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of the male and the female gamete. It requires only one parent, and the offsprings produced are exact copies of their parents.
    Two methods of asexual reproduction in animals are:
    (i)     Binary fission: It is a type of asexual reproduction in which a single cell divides into twb halves. Organisms that reproduce through binary fission are bacteria and Amoeba. In Amoeba, the division of cells can take place in any plane. It Involves the division of its nucleus into two nuclei, which is followed by the division of its body Into two halves. Each half of the body receives a nucleus.

      

 (ii)    Budding: Budding involves the formation of a ' new individual from the bulges, known as buds formed on the parent body. This method of reproduction is common in Hydra. In Hydra, thecells  divide  rapidly at a ,specific site and develop as an outgrowth, called the bud. These buds, while being attached to the parent plant, develop into smaller individuals. When these individuals become mature  enough, they detach from the parent's body and become independent individuals.


Q.6    In which female reproductive organ does the embryo get embedded?
Ans.    The embryo gets embedded in the wall fo the uterus. The embryo while it is still attached to the uterus gradually develops various body parts such as hands, legs, head, eyes, etc. The embryo is then called a foetus.
Q.7    What is metamorphosis? Give examples.
Ans.    Metamorphosis is a biological process of transforming a larva into an adult. This involves relatively sudden and abrupt changes in the animal’s structure. Frogs and isects are examples of organisms showing metamorphosis. The life cycle of a frog has three distinct stages:
    Egg --> Tadpole --> Adult
    Life cycle of a frog
    The tadpole that emerges from the egg contains gills, a tail, and a small circular mouth. They can swim freely in water. The tadpole grows and involves abrupt changes in.its structure and develops into a mature frog. A tadpole's metamorphosis begins with the development of limbs, lung development, and finally the absorption of the tail by the body.    
Q.8    Differentiate between internal fertilization and external fertilization.
Ans.    
    

EXERCISE - I

Q.1    Name the processes which are essential for the survival of individuals.
Q.2    What do you mean by reproduction ?
Q.3    What are different modes of reproduction 
Q.4    Define  the term sexual reproduction.
Q.5    What is name of the reproduction organ which produce sperm ?
Q.6    Name the female gamete.
Q.7    What do you mean by fertilisation ?
Q.8    Write the names of female reproduction organs.
Q.9    What is the other name of oviducts ?
Q.10    What types of fertilisation takes place in humans ?
Q.11    What type of fertilisation takes place in humans?
Q.12    Where  does development of embryo take place in the body of female ?
Q.13    What is foetus ?
Q.14    Where deos the development of embryo take place in those animals which undergo external fertilisation ?
Q.15    What are viviparous animals ?
Q.16    What are oviparous animals ?
Q.17    Give some examples of viviparous animals 
Q.18    Give some examples of oviparous animals 
Q.19    Name the various methods of asexual reproduction in animals ?
Q.20    What type of reproduction takes place amoeba?
Q.21    What is reproduction ? Explain its various modes.
Q.22    Explain male reproduction organs.
Q.23    What is sperm ? Explain its structure.
Q.24    Explain female reproduction organs.
Q.25    What is ova ? Explain its structure.
Q.26    Explain the terms viviparous and oviparous animals with examples ?
Q.27    What is asexual reproduction ? Write various methods of asexual reproduction.
Q.28    Explain the asexual reproduction in amoeba.
Q.29    Explain the formation of clone dolly.
Q.30    What are Sexually Transmitted Deseases ? How can they be prevented ?
Q.31    Where does fertilization take place ?
Q.32    What are the parts of a male reproductive system ?
Q.33    How does a sperm differ from an ovum ?

 

EXERCISE - II

Q.1    Binary fission occurs in :
    (A) Amoeba    (B) Paramecium    
    (C) Planaria    (D) All of these
Q.2    Which one of the following is concerned with asexual reproduction ?
    (A) Zygote    (B) Spores
    (C) Gametes    (D) Gonads
Q.3    Which type of reproduction of Hydra is most common ?
    (A) Budding    
    (B) Cracking    
    (C) Sexual reproduction            (D) Gametogenesis
Q.4    The most fundamental characteristics of living being :-
    (A) Movement    (B) Growth    
    (C) Fragmentation    (D) Reproduction
Q.5    Multiple fission occurs in :-
    (A) Hydra    (B) Plasmodium    (C) Planaria    (D) All of these
Q.6    Egg laying animals are known as :-
    (A) Viviparous    (B) Oviparous    
    (C) Sterile    (D) Hermaphrodite
Q.7    Animals which give birth to young ones are called :-
    (A) Amphibious    (B) Oviparous    
    (C) Triploblastic    (D) Viviparous
Q.8    Testes of rabbit occur :-
    (A) Inside body        
    (B) Upper side of kidney    
    (C) On either side of dorsal aorta    
    (D) In scrotal sacs
Q.9    Fertilization of ovum takes place in :-
Q.10       (A) Ovary    (B) Fallopian tube    (C) Cervix    (D) Uterus
 Oogenesis is a process of formation of :-
    (A) Sperms    (B) Ova    
    (C) Sperms and ova    (D) Oocytes
Q.11    Middle piece of a mammalian sperm contains :-
    (A) Nucleus    (B) Acrosome    
    (C) Vacuole    (D) Mitochondria
Q.12    Male hormone is :-
    (A) Corpus luteum    (B) Testosterone    (C) Progesterone    (D) Gonadotropin
Q.13    Sperms move by :-
    (A) Head    (B) Acrosome    
    (C) Middle piece    (D) Tail
Q.14    Binary fission is a form of :-
    (A) Sexual reproduction    
    (B) Asexual reproduction    
    (C) Both of these    
    (D) None of these
Q.15    Fertilization of frog takes place in :-
    (A) Uterus    (B) Fallopian tube
    (C) Water    (D) Upper part of oviduct
Q.16    Which type of cell division involve in asexual reproduction?
    (A) Meiosis    (B) Mitosis    
    (C) Amitosis    (D) Both (A) & (B)
Q.17    Which type of cell division involve in sexual reproduction? 
    (A) Meiosis    (B) Mitosis    
    (C) Amitosis    (D) Both (A) & (B)
Q.18    Vegetative reproduction is a modified form of:
    (A) Sexual reproduction        
    (B) Asexual reproduction
    (C) Both (A) & (B)        
    (D) None of these
Q.19    The process of releasing of sperm by male organism during copulation is called :
    (A) Ejaculation    (B) Insemination    (C) Fertilization    (D) Partuirition
Q.20    What is main reason of female gamete having large size?
    (A) To increase the chances of meeting of male gamete with female gamete.
    (B) To decrease the chances of meeting of male gamete with female gamete.
    (C) To implantation of embryo.     
    (D) None of the above.

ANSWER KEYS

1.    D    2.    B    3.    A    4.    D
5.    B    6.    B    7.    D    8.          D
9.    B    10.    B    11.    D    12.    B
13.    D    14.    B    15.    C    16.    B
17.    D    18.    B    19.    A    20.    A

1.    Testes are permanently retained in abdominal cavity in
    (A) Elephant    (B) Whale
    (C) Armadillo    (D) All the above
2.    Temp. of scrotum as compared to abdominal cavity is less by
    (A) 10C    (B) 50C
    (C) 30C    (D) 100C
3.    Outer coat of seminiferous tubules is 
composed of fibrous connective tissue called
    (A) Tunica propria    (B) Lamina propria
    (C) Plica semilunaris    (D) Tunica albuginea
4.    Vasa deferens is cut for 
    (A) Female sterilization
    (B) Male sterilization
    (C) Both of the above
    (D) Temporary sterilization
5.    At the time of sexual excitation, muscles in penis
    (A) Relaxed    (B) Contracted
    (C) collapsed    (D) None
6.    Which acid occur in semen
    (A) citric acid    (B) Mallic acid
    (D) Oxalo acetic acid    (D) Succinic acid
7.    Secretion of which gland has high percentage of fructose
    (A) Prostate gland    (B) Cowper's gland
    (C) Seminal vesicle    (D) Tyson
8.    If testes of a male rabbit are not transferred from abdominal cavity to testes sac then -
    (A) Rabbit dies    
    (B) Absence of male characters
    (C) Development of male reproductive system will not occur
    (D) Sperms will not form
9.    Function of seminal fluid is -
    (A) Sexual attraction    
    (B) To provide stability to egg
    (C) To provide a medium for movement of sperms
    (D) To provide acidic medium
10.    Vasa-efferentia connect the
    (A) Testes with epididymis
    (B) Kidneys with cloaca
    (C) Testes with urinogenital duct
    (D) None
11.    Uterus-masculinus in mammals is derived from
    (A) Inguinal canal    (B) Wolfian's duct
    (C) Mullerian duct    (D) Ejeculatory duct
12.    In mammals, failure of testes to descend into scrotum is known as
    (A) Paedogenesis    (B) Castration
    (C) Cryptorchidism    (D) Impotency
13.    Clupein protein occurs in
    (A) Human sperms    (B) Avian sperms
    (C) Human ova    (D) All the above
14.    Partitions of testis develop from
    (A) Tunica albuginea    (B) Tunica vasculosa
    (C) Tunica vaginalis    (D) Rete testis
15.    Vasa-efferentia posses
    (A) Peristalsis
    (B) secretory cells
    (C) Ciliated cells
    (D) Opening for seminal vasicle
16.    Vas-deferens arises from
    (A) Cauda-epididymis
    (B) Caput epididymis    
    (C) Corpus-epididymis
    (D) Rete testis
17.    Common duct formed by union of vas-deferens and duct from seminal vesicle is
    (A) Urethra    (B) Tunica-vasculosa
    (C) Ejaculatory duct    (D) Spermatic duct
18.    Mesorchium is peritoneal covering of
    (A) Ovary    (B) Testis
    (C) Kidney    (D) Liver
19.    Scrotum communicates with abdominal cavity through
    (A) Urethra    (B) Inguinal canal
    (C) Vas-deferens    (D) Epididymis
20.    Tunica albuginea is the covering around
    (A) Oviduct    (B) Testis
    (C) Kidney    (D) Heart
21.    The functional unit of testis of man is
    (A) Uriniferous tubules
    (B) Malpighian tubules
    (C) Seminiferous tubules
    (D) Acini or lobules
22.    Testosterone is secreted by
    (A) Leydigs cells    (B) Sertoli cells
    (C) Pituitary    (D) Testis
23.    Penile urethra traverses through
    (A) Corpora cavernosa
    (B) Corpus spongiosum
    (C) Corpus callosum
    (D) Corpus striatum
24.    Seminiferous tubules are composed of
    (A) Spermatogonia
    (B) Glandular epithelium
    (C) Sensory epithelium
    (D) Germinal epithelium
25.    In mammals, the testes are located in
    (A) Abdominal cavity
    (B) Thoracic cavity
    (C) Extra-abdominal cavity
    (D) Pericardial cavity
26.    Sustentacular cells are found in
    (A) Testis of mammal    
    (B) Ovary of mammal
    (C) Testis of Ascaris
    (D) Pancrease of frog
27.    Bundles of muscles in penis are
    (A) Corpus cavernosa
    (B) Corpus spongiasum
    (C) Both
    (D) None
28.    Glans penis is covered by
    (A) Areomembrana     (B) Prepuce
    (C) Metrium    (D) None
29.    Lutein cells are found in
    (A) Primary follicle    (B) Corpus albicans
    (C) Corpus luteum    (D) All
30.    The testis are abdominal in
    (A) Elephant    (B) shrew
    (C) both (A) & (B)    (D) None
31.    Scrotal sacs of man and rabbit are connected with the abdominal cavity by-
    (A) Inguinal canal    (B) Haversian canal
    (C) Vagina cavity    (D) Spermatic canal
32.    Cryptorchidism is a condition of testes
    (A) Unable to descend in scrotal sacs
    (B) Unable to produce sperms
    (C) Having been surgically removed
    (D) Having remained undeveloped
33.    In mammals, the testes occur in scrotal sacs, outside the viscera becasue of the 
    (A) Presence of urinary baldder
    (B) Presence of rectum
    (C) Long vas-deferens
    (D) Requirement of low temperature for spermatogenesis
34.    In between spermatogonia are found
    (A) Germinal cells    (B) Sertoli cells
    (C) Epithelial cells    (D) Lymph space
35.    Sertoli cells are found in
    (A) Testis of cockroach
    (B) Liver of mammals
    (C) Testis of mammals
    (D) Testis of frog
36.    Placenta is the region where
    (A) Foetus is attached to mother by spermatic cord
    (B) Foetus is provided with mother's blood
    (C) Foetus receives nourishment from mother's blood
    (D) foetus is covered by membranes.
37.    Cells of Leydig occur in
    (A) Liver    (B) Ovary    
    (C) Testis    (D) Spleen
38.    Location and secretion of leydig cells are    
    (A) Liver - choleseterol
    (B) Ovary-oestrogen
    (C) Testis - Testosterone    
    (D) Pancrease - Glucagon
39.    Which acessory genital gland occurs only in male mammal
    (A) Bartholin's gland    (B) Perineal gland
    (C) Prostate gland    (D) All
40.    Seminal vesicle is present at the junction of
    (A) Prostate and urethra    
    (B) Prostate and vas-deferens
    (C) Prostate and cowper's gland    
    (D) vas-deferns and testis
41.    Seminiferous tubules occur in
    (A) Liver    (B) Kidney    
    (C) Ovary    (D) Testis
42.    During differentiation the spermatids remain associated with
    (A) Leyding's cells    (B) Kuffer's cells    
    (C) Spermatogonia     (D) Sertoli cell
43.    Seminal fluid has sperms and secretions of
    (A) Prostate, cowper's & Bertholin glands     
    (B) Seminal vesicle, Prostate & cowper's glands
    (C) Seminal vescile, ureter & Prostate gland
    (D) Follicles, ureters and prostate gland
44.    Sugar fructose is present in the secretion of
    (A) Seminal vesicle    (B) Perineal gland    
    (C) Cowper's gland    (D) Bertholin's gland
45.    Spermatozoa are nourished during their development by
    (A) Sertoli cells    (B) Interstitial cells
    (C) Connective tissue cells    (D) None
46.    Sertoli cells are found in the
    (A) Frog's testis    (B) Rabbit's testis
    (C) Cockroach's testis    (D) Liver of frog
47.    What would happen if vasa deferantia of man are cut 
    (A) Sperms are non nucleate
    (B) Spermatogenesis does not occur
    (C) Semen is with out sperms    
    (D) Sperm are non motile
48.    If the epididymis is not presented then what will happen :-
    (A) Sperm life cycle is short
    (B) Early cross the pathway
    (C) Functional maturation is early    
    (D) Sperm will be incapable for fertilization
49.    In majority of pre mature babies testis is situated in 
    (A) Scrotal sac        
    (B) Abdominal cavity    
    (C) Descending pathway    
    (D) Come into scrotal sac but not attached property
50.    After vasectomy what happens :-
    (A) Absence of semen    
    (B) Sperm are dead or inactive
    (C) Sperm immediately disapear in semen    
    (D) Sperm gradually disapear in semen
51.    Sertoli cells occur in
    (A) Human testis    (B) Frog testis    
    (C) Human ovary    (D) Frog ovary
52.    Which one is primary sex organ
    (A) Scrotum    (B) Penis    
    (C) Testis    (D) Prostrate
53.    If somatic chromosomes number is 40. What shall be chromosomal number in the cell of seminiferous tubules
    (A) 40    (B) 20    
    (C) 10    (D) 40 and 20
54.    Testis of rabbit occur
    (A) One either side of dorsal aorta    
    (B) Inside body
    (C) On side of kidneys    
    (D) In scrotal sacs
55.    Meaning of oligospermia is
    (A) Eggs are fertilized in less number    
    (B) Less number of sperms in semen
    (C) More number of sperms formed    
    (D) Inactive sperm are formed
56.    In aged person inguinal canal becomes loose, and some part of intestine is pushed into scrotal sac, the disease is called
    (A) Myctalopia     (B) Hernia    
    (C) Achondroplasia    (D) None
57.    Vagina of the female reproductive system is
    (A) Primary sex organs
    (B) Essential sex organs
    (C) Secondary sex organs
    (D) None
58.    External/acessory sexual characters first appear in
    (A) Childhood    (B) Puberty    
    (C) Foetus    (D) Adulthood
59.    Puberty occurs in females at the age of
    (A) 8 - 10 years    (B) 11-14 years    
    (C) 15-17 years    (D) 18-20 years
60.    Mesovarium is pertioneal covering of
    (A) Ovary    (B) Testis    
    (C) Kidney    (D) Liver
61.    At puberty woman start producing
    (A) Sperms    (B) Urine    
    (C) Young ones    (D) ova
62.    Ostium is the aperture present in
    (A) oviduct     (B) Fallopian funnel    
    (C) Ovisac    (D) Cloaca
63.    Progesterone is
    (A) Carbohydrate    (B) Steroid    
    (C) Protein    (D) Sterol
64.    Eggs from ovary are released in
    (A) Oviduct    (B) Kidney    
    (C) Ureter    (D) Coelom
65.    Development of foetus takes place in
    (A) Vagina    (B) Uterus    
    (C) Ovary    (D) Oviduct
66.    Lower narrow end of uterus is called
    (A) Urethra    (B) Cervix    
    (C) Clitoris    (D) Vulva
67.    Vaginal cavity of tunica vaginalis is found in
    (A) Ovaries of female  (B) Testis of male    
    (C) Vagina of female    (D) None
68.    Sperms and ova are
    (A) Ectodermal in origin
    (B) Mesodermal in origin
    (C) Endodermal in origin
    (D) All of the above
69.    Proximal part of oviduct is fimbriated funnel and distal part forms the
    (A) Corpus luteum    (B) Bartholin's gland
    (C) Uterus    (D) None
70.    Germinal epithelial cells are cuboidal and these are found in
    (A) Testes        (B) Ovary
    (C) Both        (D) None
71.    Corpus albicans is found in ovary it is also found in
    (A) Liver    (B) Brain    
    (C) Kidney    (D) None
72.    Degenerative process of follicles or eggs in ovary is called
    (A) Metagenesis    (B) Atresia    
    (C) Regression    (D) None
73.    Process by which Graffian follicles are formed in the ovary is known as
    (A) Oogenesis    (B) Luteirisation    
    (C) Folliculogenesis    (D) All
74.    Central stroma of ovary is made up of
    (A) Fibrous conective tissue    
    (B) Reticular tissue
    (C) Adipose connective tissue    
    (D) None
75.    Mammalian follicle was first described by
    (A) Leeuvenhock    (B) R.D. Graaf    
    (C) Spallangi    (D) Von Baer
76.    Antrum is filled with fluid and is found in
    (A) Bone-marrow of bone    
    (B) Cavity of brain
    (B) Graffian follicle of ovary    
    (D) Pericardium of heart
77.    One of the following is fibrous layer of follicle
    (A) Theca externa
    (B) Zona pellucida
    (C) Membrana granulosa
    (D) Vitelline membrane
78.    Fertilization in man and rabbit takes place in fallopian tube of oviduct in
    (A) Proximal part    (B) Distal part
    (C) Basal part    (D) None
79.    Eggs librated from ovary in human in
    (A) Secondary oocyte stage
    (B) Primary oocyte stage
    (C) Oogonial stage        
    (D) Mature ovum stage
80.    Graffian follicle are found in    
    (A) Testis of mammal
    (B) Ovary of frog
    (C) Ovary of cockroach
    (D) Ovary of mammals
81.    Site of fertilization in mammal is
    (A) ovary    (B) Uterus    
    (C) Vagina    (D) Fallopian tube
82.    Endometrium is lining of
    (A) Testis    (B) Urinary bladder    
    (C) Uterus    (D) Ureter
83.    A secondary sexual character is
    (A) Breast    (B) ovary    
    (C) Testis    (D) Thyroid
84.    Expanded proximal part of oviduct in female is
    (A) Uterus    (B) Fallopian tube    
    (C) Fimbriated funnel     (D) Vestibule
85.    The endocrinal structure formed after 
ovulation (release of ovum from graafian 
follicle) is
    (A) Corpus albicans    (B) Corpus callosum  
    (C) Corpus leuteum    (D) Corpus striatum 
86.    Human beings are
    (A) Ovoviviparous    (B) Oviparous    
    (C) parthenogenetic    (D) Viviparous.
87.    At the time of birth, ovum is the form of :-
    (A) Oogonia    (B) Primary oocyte
    (C) Sec. oocytes    (D) Egg
88.    Which is not a secondary sex organ :-
    (A) Vagina    (B) Penis    
    (C) Prostate    (D) Mammary gland
89.    Cowper's glands are found in
    (A) Male mammals    (B) Female birds
    (C) Male amphibians
    (D) Female amphibians
90.    Corpus luteum is 
    (A) Excretory    (B) Endocrine    
    (C) Digestive    (D) Reproductive
91.    A female gland correspounding to prostate of males is
    (A) Bartholin's' gland    (B) Bulbourethral gland
    (C) Clitoris    (D) None
92.    Progesterone is secreted by
    (A) Corpus Luteum    (B) Thyroid    
    (C) Thymus    (D) Testis
93.    Release of oocytes from ovary is
    (A) Gestation    (B) Ovulation    
    (C) Parturition    (D) Implantation
94.    Growth and maturation of graafian follicle is controlled by
    (A) FSH-LH    (B) FSH-LTH    
    (C) ACTH-LH    (D) GH-ADH
95.    If cowpers gland is removed which of the following will be affected
    (A) Sexual attraction    (B) Fertilization    
    (C) Hardness of penis    (D) Copulation
96.    Atretic follicle is
    (A) Which are not developed completely and degenerate
    (B) Other name of which corpus lutern
    (C) Which excluded its oocytes    
    (D) None of the above
97.    For ovulation in reflex ovulation
    (A) Coitus in necessary    
    (B) Coitus is not necessary
    (C) Plenty of food is necessary    
    (D) None
98.    Oral-contraceptives prevent the
    (A) Fertilisation    (B) Ovulation
    (C) Implantation    
    (D) Entrance of sperms in vagina
99.    A polyoestrous mammalian example is :-
    (A) Man    (B) Cat    
    (C) New age monkey    (D) All the above
100.    Voice is high pitched in
    (A) Aged persons    (B) Adult males    
    (C) Boys    (D) Females
 

ANSWER KEYS  

 1.    D    2.    C    3.    A    4.    B    5.    A    6.    A    7.    C
    8.    D    9.    C    10.    A    11.    C    12.    C    13.    A    14.    A
    15.    C    16.    A    17.    C    18.    B    19.    B    20.    B    21.    C
    22.    A    23.    B    24.    D    25.    C    26.    A    27.    C    28.    B
    29.    C    30.    C    31.    A    32.    A    33.    D    34.    B    35.    C
    36.    C    37.    C     38.    C    39.    C    40.    B    41.    D    42.    D
    43.    B    44.    A    45.    A    46.    B    47.    C    48.    D    49.    C
    50.    D    51.    A    52.    C    53.    D    54.    D    55.    B    56.    B
    57.    C    58.    B    59.    B    60.    A    61.    D    62.    B    63.    B
    64.    D    65.    B    66.    B    67.    B    68.    B    69.    C    70.    C
    71.    B    72.    B    73.    C    74.    A    75.    B    76.    C    77.    A
    78.    A    79.    A    80.    D    81.    D    82.    C    83.    A    84.    C
    85.    C    86.    D    87.    B    88.    D    89.    A    90.    B    91.    D
    92.    A    93.    B    94.    A    95.    B    96.    A    97.    A    98.    B
    99.    B    100.    D