Nutrition in plants
NUTRITION IN PLANTS
Plants play role of producers in nature. are producers, which produce food for all living organic. They utilize sun’s radiant energy & convert into chemical energy. In this way, they also plays role of converter. Plants use sunlight in photosynthesis. During photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight CO2 & H2O convert in to carbohydrate & O2 molecules.
MECHANISM OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
- Steps of photosynthesis :
- Chlorophyll traps the sunlight.
- CO2 & water molecule used as raw material.
- Now the chlorophyll convert the raw material into carbohydrate.
- Oxygen is generated as a by product in this process.
REQUIREMENT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Green plants need the following things to prepare their own food :
- Carbon Dioxide : Plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmospheric air through stomata present on the undersurface of the leaves. Guard cells around stomata regulate their opening and closing.
- Chlorophyll : It is the green pigment presents in the leaf. The green colour of leaves is due to the presence of chlorophyll. It is usually present in special cell organelle called chloroplast. Chlorophyll captures solar energy during photosynthesis.
- Sunlight : Sunlight comes from the sun. It is essential as it provides the energy required for the reaction.
- Water and Minerals : Roots of the plants absorb water along with minerals from the soil and transport them to the leaves for photosynthesis.
SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Photosynthesis occurs in the chlorophyll of leaves & sometimes in the stem which are green in colour.
Importance of photosynthesis :
- It is primary source of food production for all other living organisms.
- It maintain balance oxygen & CO2 in the atmosphere.
NUTRITION IN NON GREEN PLANTS
Non green plants like bacteria & fungi do not contain chlorophyll. So they cannot prepare their food by photosynthesis. These types of plants are heterotrophic plants.
(1) Parasites : Plants which depends on other living organism for their nutritional requirement known as parasitic plants. Dodder (Amarbel) is a plant parasite which produces special sucking roots called haustoria. For absorption of food from the host plant.
(2) Saprophytes : Plants which depends on dead organic matter for their nutrition, known as saprophytic plants. For example – Bacteria & fungi.
(3) Carnivorous & insectivorous plants : Some plants also take food just like animals. Their food
consists of small insects. For example – Pitcher plants.
In a pitcher plant leaf is modified into a pitcher like structure when any insects sits on it, the lid is closed & the insect is trapped in pitcher. It is then digested by the secretion of enzymes.
(4) Symbiosis : It is a partnership between two organisms in which both partner get benefited from each other.
For example : Lichen.
Lichen is a combination of an alga & a fungus. In which, the fungus provides water & minerals to the alga whereas the alga supplies organic food to fungus.
HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION IN ANIMAL
All animals are divided into three categories on the basis of their eating habits :
- Herbivorous Animals : Animals which feed directly on plants are called herbivorous animals or herbivores. Examples are cow, buffalo, goat, etc.
- Carnivorous Animals : Animals which eat the flesh of other animals are called carnivorous animals or carnivores. Examples are lion, tiger, etc.
- Omnivorous Animals : Animals which eat both plants and flesh of other animals are called omnivorous animals or omnivorous. Examples are human beings, pig, crow, cockroach, etc.
Q.1 What is the meaning of autotrophic nutrition ?
Q.2 What is symbiotic relationship ?
Q.3 What are producers ?
Q.4 Which type of nutrition is found in Doddar ?
Q.5 Write down the equation of photo synthesis ?
Q.6 What is the meaning of ‘nutrition’ ?
Q.7 How do algae & fungi benefit each other ?
Q.8 What are insectivores ? Name an insectivorous plant ?
Q.9 What is photosynthesis ?
Q.10 What factors are essential for photosynthesis?
Q.11 How do plants exchange gases with the atmosphere ?
Q.12 Name the 3 groups of animals on the basis of their eating habits ?
Q.13 Write the meaning of following terms– herbivores, carnivores & omnivores.
Q.14 How do you show that chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis ?
Q.15 Describe symbiotic mode of nutrition with an example ?
Q.16 How dodder takes their nutrients from the host?
Q.17 Describe the methods of nutrition in non green plants ?
• MCQ’s with one choice correct
1. The plant that feeds & traps on insects is -
(A) Drosera (B) Sunflower
(C) Cuscuta (D) Mango
2. The green pigment in the leaves is called -
(A) Chlorophyll (B) Anthocyanin
(C) Chloroplast (D) None
3. Which one of the following is a parasite ?
(A) Mushroom (B) Fungi
(C) Dodder (D) Pitcher’s plant
4. Rhizobium is a good example of -
(A) insectivorous (B) symbiosis
(C) parasitic (D) none of these
5. Cuscuta is an example of -
(A) autotroph (B) parasite
(C) saprophyte (D) host
6. Autotrophic nutrition found only in -
(A) plants (B) animals
(C) both (D) none
7. The plant that feeds and traps on insects is -
(A) venus-fly trap (B) cuscuta
(C) sunflower (D) none of these
8. Association of two different organisms in which both are benefited is called -
(A) symbiosis (B) nutrition
(C) saprophytic (D) parasitic
9. CO2 & O2 balance in atmosphere is due to -
(D) Leaf anatomy
10. Amarbel is an example of :
(A) autotroph (B) parasite (C) saprotroph (D) host
11. The plant which traps and feeds on insects is
(A) cuscuta (B) china rose (C) pitcher plant (D) rose
12. Non-chlorophyllous plants are :
(A) yeast (B) pitcher plants (C) cuscuta (D) (A), (C) both
13. Animals are mostly :
(A) autotrophic (B) saprotrophic (C) heterotrophic (C) parasitic
14. Sucking roots are produced by :
(A) rose (B) amarbel (C) china rose (D) none of these
15. Dispersal of fungus occurs by :
(A) Seeds (B) Other animals (C) Spores (D) (A), (B) both
16. Stomata helps in :
(A) Gaseous exchange (B) Transpiration
(C) Absorption of nutrients (D) (A), (B) both
17. Parasite are those which :
(A) Doesn’t causes harm to host (B) Support host
(C) Causes always harm to host (D) All of the above
18. Which of the following is/are parasite animals :
(A) Mosquitoes (B) Leeches (C) Bed bugs & lice (D) All of these
19. Manures are formed by :
(A) Biological decomposition (B) Chemical methods in factories
(C) Both (A), (B) (D) None of the above
20. Fertilizers are rich in :
(A) Nitrogen, Sulphur, Potassium (B) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
(C) Nitrogen, phosphorus, Calcium (D) Nitrogen, Magnesium, Calcium
21. Pitcher is a modified :
(A) Stem (B) Branch (C) Leaf (D) Flower
22. Main organisms, helping in uptake of nitrogen from atmosphere are :
(A) Bacteria (B) Plants (C) Fungi (D) None of the above
23. Fungal spores can not be grow in which of the following conditions :
(A) Warm & wet (B) Cold & wet (C) Dry (D) Cold & dry
24. Lichens are the symbiotic association between
(A) Plant and bacteria
(B) Algae and bacteria
(C) Algae and fungi
(D) Fungi and bacteria
25. Nutrients require more by crops is :
(A) Potassium (B) Calcium (C) Phosphorus (D) Nitrogen
26. Plants appears green due to :
(A) Chlorophyll (B) Xanthophyll (C) Carotenoids (D) (A), (C) both
27. Ultimate source of energy for all living organisms over earth is :
(A) Carbohydrates (B) Solar energy (C) Fats (D) Proteins
28. All fungi are :
(A) Saprotrophs (B) Autotrophs (C) Heterotrophs (D) Partial heterotrophs
29. Nitrogen fixation is called :
(A) Conversion of NH3 to NO2 (B) Conversion of N2 to NO3
(C) Conversion of NO3 to N2 (D) Conversion of NO2 and NO3
30. The insects captured by the insectivorous plants partially fulfil their requirement of :
(A) Enzyme (B) Oxygen (C) Nitrogen (D) Hydrogen
31. Insectivorous plants are called so because :
(A) All insects eat these plants (B) Insects like plants
(C) They catch insects for food (D) They catch insects for nutrient supply
32. Which of the following is released during photosynthesis :
(A) CO2 (B) O2 (C) N2 (D) H2O
33. Cuscuta is :
(A) Parasite (B) Saprotroph (C) Autotroph (D) None
34. Most plants obtain their nitrogen from soil in the form of :
(A) HNO3 (B) Nitrate (C) Free nitrogen gas (D) Nitrogen oxide
35. Raw materials for photosynthesis :
(A) Carbon dioxide
(D) All of them
36. An example of an autotrophic plant is ........
(A) Mushrooom (B) Mould
(C) Dodder (D) Neem
37. An example of a saprophytic plant is ......
(A) Dodder (B) Monotropa
(C) Mushroom (D) All of them
38. The life processes that provide energy are
(C) both nutrition and respiration
(D) response to stimuli
39. Which of these is not necessary for photosynthesis?
(A) carbon dioxide (B) chlorophyll
(C) light (D) nitrog en
40. Of the following identify the carnivorous plant
(A) Pitcher plant
(B) Venus fly trap
(C) Both of them
(D) None of them
41. CO2 and O2 balance in atmosphere is due to
(D) leaf anatomy
42. During photosynthesis the oxygen in glucose comes from
(B) carbon dioxide
(C) both from water and carbon dioxide
(D) oxygen in air
43. The source of O2 liberated in photosynthesis is
(A) photosynthetic enzyme
(B) carbohydrate present in leaf
(D) carbon dioxide
44. Grana refers to
(A) glucolysis of glucose
(B) by-product of photosynthesis
(C) stacks of thylakoids
(D) stacks of quantasomes
45. Which of the following wavelength of light is absorbed maximum for photosynthesis?
(A) Red light (B) Blue light
(C) Green light (D) Yellow light
46. Which of the following is the least effective in photosynthesis?
(A) Red light (B) Blue light
(C) Green light (D) Violet
47. The assimilatory power in photosynthesis is
(C) ATP and NADPH2
(D) ATP, NADPH and CO2
48. A specific function of light energy in the process of photosynthesis is to
(A) activate chlorophyll
(B) split water
(C) synthesis glucose
(D) reduce CO2
49. ATP formation during photosynthesis is known as
(C) oxidative phosphorylation (D) substrate level phosphorylation
50. Dark reaction in photosynthesis is called so because
(A) it does not require light energy
(B) cannot occur during daytime
(C) occurs more rapidly at night
(D) it can also occur in darkness
51. Dark reaction of photosynthesis occurs in the
(A) stroma of the chloroplast outside the lamellae
(B) space between the two membranes of the chloroplast
(C) membranes of the stroma lamellae
(D) thylakoid membrane of the grana
52. Holophytic nutrition means-
53. Autotrophic nutrition occurs in
(C) Some protists and prokaryotes
(D) Both B and C
54. Mushroom, Rhizopus and Yeast are
55. Chlorophyll is present
(A) in the grana of chloroplast (B) on the surface of chloroplast
(C) in the stroma of chloroplast (D) none of these
56. Chlorophyll cannot absorb one of the following
(A) red light
(B) blue light
(C) blue and red light
(D) green light
57. The oxygen in photosynthesis is released from-
58. Dark reaction of photosynthesis occurs in
(A) Grana (B) Stroma (C) Matrix (D) Cytoplasm
59. Photosynthesis proceeds in sequence of -
(A) Dark phase and light phase
(B) Light phase alone
(C) Light phase and dark phase
(D)Dark phase alone
60. In bacterial photosynthesis, the hydrogen donor is -
(A) H2O (B) H2SO4 (C) NH3 (D) H2S
61. Chlorophyll in chloroplasts is located in -
(D) none of these
62. Which of the following is the best equation representing photosynthesis?
(A) energy + 6O2 + 6 H2O
C5HO12 + 6O2
(B) energy + CO2 + H2O CH2O + O2
(C) energy + 6 CO2 + 12 H2OC6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6 O2
(D) energy + 12 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6 O2
63. In which part of chloroplast light reaction of photosynthesis occurs?
(D) All the above
64. The raw materials for photosynthesis are -
(A) CO2 & O2 (B) sunlight and CO2
(C) water and chlorophyll (D) CO2 and water
1. A 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. A
8. A 9. B 10. B 11. C 12. D 13. C 14. B
15. C 16. D 17. C 18. D 19. A 20. B 21. C
22. A 23. C 24. C 25. D 26. A 27. B 28. A
29. B 30. C 31. D 32. B 33. A 34. B 35. D
36. D 37. C 38. C 39. D 40. C 41. B 42. A
43. C 44. C 45. B 46. C 47. A 48. A 49. B
50. A 51. A 52. A 53. D 54. D 55. A 56. D
57. B 58. B 59. C 60. D 61. A 62. C 63. A
Fill in the blanks
1. Plants stores food materials in the form of __________.
2. Green plants are __________ as they synthesize their own food materials.
3. Chlorophyll pigments are present in __________.
4. Plants in take __________ and release __________ during photosynthesis.
5. __________ is a non-chlorophyllous plant.
6. __________ pigment helps in trapping solar energy.
7. __________ are the pores present on leaf surface for exchange of gases.
8. Insectivorous plants are called __________ heterotrophs.
9. Fungi shows __________ mode of nutrition.
10. Lichens are the symbiotic association between __________ & __________.
11. Loss of water vapours through plants surface is called __________.
12. __________ is regarded as kitchen of cell.
13. __________ is the life supporting process over earth.
14. Opening and closing of stomata is controlled by __________.
15. Fungus always grows in __________ and __________ conditions.
True or False
16. Fungi are useful and harmful both.
17. Mostly plants are autotrophs.
18. Only green coloured plants can perform photosynthesis.
19. In desert plants green stem act as photosynthetic part.
20. Plants can intake nitrogen through stomata.
21. Animals are heterotrophs in nature.
22. Carbon dioxide is released during photosynthesis.
23. The end product of photosynthesis is protein.
24. During photosynthesis solar energy is converted into chemical energy.
25. Ultimate source of energy for all living organisms is solar energy.
1. Starch 2. Autotrophic 3. Chloroplast
4. CO2, O2 5. Cuscuta or Amarbel 6. Chlorophyll
7. Stomata 8. Parital 9. Saprotorphic
10. Algae & Fungi 11. Transpiration 12. Chloroplast
13. Photosynthesis 14. Guard cells 15. Wet, Warm
16. (T) 17. (T) 18. (F) 19. (T) 50. (F)
21. (T) 22. (F) 23. (F) 24. (T) 25. (T)