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Plants play role of producers in nature. are producers, which produce food for all living organic. They utilize sun’s radiant energy & convert into chemical energy. In this way, they also plays role of converter. Plants use sunlight in photosynthesis. During photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight CO2 & H2O convert in to carbohydrate & O2 molecules.


  1.  Steps of photosynthesis :
  •   Chlorophyll traps the sunlight.
  •   CO2 & water molecule used as raw material.
  •    Now the chlorophyll convert the raw material into carbohydrate.
  •    Oxygen is generated as a by product in this process.


                                                                  REQUIREMENT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Green plants need the following things to prepare their own food :

  • Carbon Dioxide : Plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmospheric air through stomata present on the undersurface of the leaves. Guard cells around stomata regulate their opening and closing.
  • Chlorophyll : It is the green pigment presents in the leaf. The green colour of leaves is due to the presence of chlorophyll. It is usually present in special cell organelle called chloroplast. Chlorophyll captures solar energy during photosynthesis.
  • Sunlight : Sunlight comes from the sun. It is essential as it provides the energy required for the reaction.
  • Water and Minerals : Roots of the plants absorb water along with minerals from the soil and transport them to the leaves for photosynthesis.


Photosynthesis occurs in the chlorophyll of leaves & sometimes in the stem which are green in colour.


Importance of photosynthesis :


  •     It is primary source of food production for all other living organisms.
  •     It maintain balance oxygen & CO2 in the atmosphere.




Non green plants like bacteria & fungi do not contain chlorophyll. So they cannot prepare their food by photosynthesis. These types of plants are heterotrophic plants.





(1)    Parasites : Plants which depends on other living organism for their nutritional requirement known as parasitic plants. Dodder (Amarbel) is a plant parasite which produces special sucking roots called haustoria. For absorption of food from the host plant.

(2)    Saprophytes : Plants which depends on dead organic matter for their nutrition, known as saprophytic plants. For example – Bacteria & fungi.

(3)    Carnivorous & insectivorous plants : Some plants also take food just like animals. Their food 
consists of small insects. For example – Pitcher plants.

    In a pitcher plant leaf is modified into a pitcher like structure when any insects sits on it, the lid is closed & the insect is trapped in pitcher. It is then digested by the secretion of enzymes.

(4)    Symbiosis : It is a partnership between two organisms in which both partner get benefited from each other.
    For example : Lichen.
    Lichen is a combination of an alga & a fungus. In which, the fungus provides water & minerals to the alga whereas the alga supplies organic food to fungus.


    Animals and non-green plants like fungi, etc. cannot manufacture their own food. For their food, they depend upon green plants, directly or indirectly. Therefore, they are called heterotopous and their mode of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition.

    All animals are divided into three categories on the basis of their eating habits :


  •  Herbivorous Animals : Animals which feed directly on plants are called herbivorous animals or herbivores. Examples are cow, buffalo, goat, etc.    
  • Carnivorous Animals : Animals which eat the flesh of other animals are called carnivorous animals or carnivores. Examples are lion, tiger, etc.
  • Omnivorous Animals : Animals which eat both plants and flesh of other animals are called omnivorous animals or omnivorous. Examples are human beings, pig, crow, cockroach, etc.


Q.1    What is the meaning of autotrophic nutrition ?

Q.2    What is symbiotic relationship ? 

Q.3    What are producers ?

Q.4    Which type of nutrition is found in Doddar ?

Q.5    Write down the equation of photo synthesis ?

Q.6    What is the meaning of ‘nutrition’ ?

Q.7    How do algae & fungi benefit each other ?

Q.8    What are insectivores ? Name an insectivorous plant ?

Q.9    What is photosynthesis ?

Q.10    What factors are essential for photosynthesis?

Q.11    How do plants exchange gases with the atmosphere ?

Q.12    Name the 3 groups of animals on the basis of their eating habits ?

Q.13    Write the meaning of following terms– herbivores, carnivores & omnivores.

Q.14    How do you show that chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis ?

Q.15    Describe symbiotic mode of nutrition with an example ?

Q.16    How dodder takes their nutrients from the host?

Q.17    Describe the methods of nutrition in non green plants ?

•    MCQ’s with one choice correct

1.    The plant that feeds & traps on insects is -
    (A) Drosera                         (B) Sunflower
    (C) Cuscuta                         (D) Mango

2.    The green pigment in the leaves is called -
    (A) Chlorophyll                  (B) Anthocyanin
    (C) Chloroplast                  (D) None

3.    Which one of the following is a parasite ?
    (A) Mushroom                  (B) Fungi
    (C) Dodder                        (D) Pitcher’s plant 

4.    Rhizobium is a good example of -
    (A) insectivorous               (B) symbiosis
    (C) parasitic                      (D) none of these

5.    Cuscuta is an example of -
    (A) autotroph                    (B) parasite
    (C) saprophyte                 (D) host 

6.    Autotrophic nutrition found only in -
    (A) plants                        (B) animals
    (C) both                           (D) none

7.    The plant that feeds and traps on insects is -
    (A) venus-fly trap          (B) cuscuta
    (C) sunflower                (D) none of these 

8.    Association of two different organisms in which both are benefited is called -
    (A) symbiosis                (B) nutrition
    (C) saprophytic             (D) parasitic 

9.    CO2 & O2 balance in atmosphere is due to -
    (A) Photorespiration     
    (B) Photosynthesis
    (C) Respiration    
    (D) Leaf anatomy

10.    Amarbel is an example of :
    (A) autotroph        (B) parasite         (C) saprotroph    (D) host

11.    The plant which traps and feeds on insects is 
    (A) cuscuta         (B) china rose        (C) pitcher plant     (D) rose

12.    Non-chlorophyllous plants are :
    (A) yeast         (B) pitcher plants     (C) cuscuta         (D) (A), (C) both 

13.    Animals are mostly :
    (A) autotrophic     (B) saprotrophic    (C) heterotrophic    (C) parasitic

14.    Sucking roots are produced by :
    (A) rose         (B) amarbel        (C) china rose        (D) none of these

15.    Dispersal of fungus occurs by :
    (A) Seeds         (B) Other animals     (C) Spores         (D) (A), (B) both 

16.    Stomata helps in :
    (A) Gaseous exchange                 (B) Transpiration     
    (C) Absorption of nutrients            (D) (A), (B) both 

17.    Parasite are those which :
    (A) Doesn’t causes harm to host         (B) Support host
    (C) Causes always harm to host            (D) All of the above

18.    Which of the following is/are parasite animals :
    (A) Mosquitoes     (B) Leeches        (C) Bed bugs & lice    (D) All of these

19.    Manures are formed by :
    (A) Biological decomposition             (B) Chemical methods in factories
    (C) Both (A), (B)                (D) None of the above

20.    Fertilizers are rich in :    
    (A) Nitrogen, Sulphur, Potassium         (B) Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
    (C) Nitrogen, phosphorus, Calcium         (D) Nitrogen, Magnesium, Calcium

21.    Pitcher is a modified :
    (A) Stem         (B) Branch         (C) Leaf         (D) Flower

22.    Main organisms, helping in uptake of nitrogen from atmosphere are :    
    (A) Bacteria        (B) Plants        (C) Fungi         (D) None of the above

23.    Fungal spores can not be grow in which of the following conditions :
    (A) Warm & wet    (B) Cold & wet        (C) Dry        (D) Cold & dry

24.    Lichens are the symbiotic association between 
    (A) Plant and bacteria    
    (B) Algae and bacteria    
    (C) Algae and fungi    
    (D) Fungi and bacteria

25.    Nutrients require more by crops is :        
    (A) Potassium         (B) Calcium         (C) Phosphorus    (D) Nitrogen 

26.    Plants appears green due to :        
    (A) Chlorophyll    (B) Xanthophyll        (C) Carotenoids     (D) (A), (C) both 

27.    Ultimate source of energy for all living organisms over earth is :    
    (A) Carbohydrates    (B) Solar energy     (C) Fats         (D) Proteins

28.    All fungi are :    
    (A) Saprotrophs     (B) Autotrophs         (C) Heterotrophs    (D) Partial heterotrophs

29.    Nitrogen fixation is called :    
    (A) Conversion of NH3 to NO2             (B) Conversion of N2 to NO3
    (C) Conversion of NO3 to N2             (D) Conversion of NO2 and NO3

30.    The insects captured by the insectivorous plants partially fulfil their requirement of :
    (A) Enzyme         (B) Oxygen         (C) Nitrogen         (D) Hydrogen 

31.    Insectivorous plants are called so because :
    (A) All insects eat these plants             (B) Insects like plants 
    (C) They catch insects for food             (D) They catch insects for nutrient supply 

32.    Which of the following is released during photosynthesis :
    (A) CO2         (B) O2            (C) N2            (D) H2O

33.    Cuscuta is :    
    (A) Parasite         (B) Saprotroph         (C) Autotroph         (D) None 

34.    Most plants obtain their nitrogen from soil in the form of :
    (A) HNO3        (B) Nitrate         (C) Free nitrogen gas     (D) Nitrogen oxide

35.    Raw materials for photosynthesis :
    (A) Carbon dioxide    
    (B) Water
    (C) Sunlight    
    (D) All of them

36.    An example of an autotrophic plant is ........
    (A) Mushrooom    (B) Mould
    (C) Dodder           (D) Neem

37.    An example of a saprophytic plant is ......
    (A) Dodder             (B) Monotropa
    (C) Mushroom        (D) All of them

38.    The life processes that provide energy are
    (A)  nutrition        
    (B) respiration
    (C) both nutrition and respiration    
    (D) response to stimuli

39.    Which of these is not necessary for photosynthesis?
    (A) carbon dioxide                  (B) chlorophyll
    (C) light                                  (D) nitrog en

40.    Of the following identify the carnivorous plant
    (A) Pitcher plant
    (B) Venus fly trap
    (C) Both of them
    (D) None of them

41.    CO2 and O2 balance in atmosphere is           due to 
    (A) photorespiration
    (B) photosynthesis
    (C) respiration        
    (D) leaf anatomy

42.    During photosynthesis the oxygen in glucose comes from
    (A) water        
    (B) carbon dioxide
    (C) both from water and carbon dioxide
    (D) oxygen in air

43.    The source of O2 liberated in photosynthesis is 
    (A) photosynthetic enzyme
    (B) carbohydrate present in leaf
     (C) water    
    (D) carbon dioxide

44.    Grana refers to 
    (A) glucolysis of glucose
    (B) by-product of photosynthesis
    (C) stacks of thylakoids
    (D) stacks of quantasomes

45.    Which of the following wavelength of light is absorbed maximum for photosynthesis?
    (A) Red light                    (B) Blue light
    (C) Green light                (D) Yellow light
46.    Which of the following is the least effective in photosynthesis?
    (A) Red light                  (B) Blue light
    (C) Green light              (D) Violet 
47.    The assimilatory power in photosynthesis is 
    (A) ATP    
    (B) NADPH
    (C) ATP and NADPH2
    (D) ATP, NADPH and CO2

48.    A specific function of light energy in the process of photosynthesis is to
    (A) activate chlorophyll
    (B) split water
    (C) synthesis glucose
    (D) reduce CO2

49.    ATP formation during photosynthesis is known as
    (A) phosphorylation    
    (B) photophosphorylation
    (C) oxidative phosphorylation            (D) substrate level phosphorylation

50.    Dark reaction in photosynthesis is called so because
    (A) it does not require light energy
    (B) cannot occur during daytime 
    (C) occurs more rapidly at night    
    (D) it can also occur in darkness

51.    Dark reaction of photosynthesis occurs in the 
    (A) stroma of the chloroplast outside the lamellae
    (B) space between the two membranes of the chloroplast
    (C) membranes of the stroma lamellae
    (D) thylakoid membrane of the grana

52.    Holophytic nutrition means-
    (A) autotrophism
    (B) heterotrophism
    (C) symbiotism
    (D) parasitism

53.    Autotrophic nutrition occurs in 
    (A) Fungi
    (B) Plants
    (C) Some protists and prokaryotes
    (D) Both B and C

54.    Mushroom, Rhizopus and Yeast are
    (A) Chemosynthetic
    (B) Parasitic     
    (C) Holozoic    
    (D) Saprophytic

55.    Chlorophyll is present
    (A) in the grana of chloroplast        (B) on the surface of chloroplast
    (C) in the stroma of chloroplast        (D) none of these

56.    Chlorophyll cannot absorb one of the following
    (A) red light    
    (B) blue light    
    (C) blue and red light    
    (D) green light

57.    The oxygen in photosynthesis is released from-
    (A) CO2    
    (B) H2   
    (C) Carbohydrate
    (D) Chlorophyll

58.    Dark reaction of photosynthesis occurs in 
    (A) Grana        (B) Stroma        (C) Matrix        (D) Cytoplasm

59.    Photosynthesis proceeds in sequence of -
    (A) Dark phase and light phase
    (B) Light phase alone
    (C) Light phase and dark phase
    (D)Dark phase alone

60.    In bacterial photosynthesis, the hydrogen donor is -
    (A) H2O        (B) H2SO4        (C) NH3        (D) H2S

61.    Chlorophyll in chloroplasts is located in -
    (A) grana    
    (B) pyrenoid    
    (C) stroma    
    (D) none of these

62.    Which of the following is the best equation representing photosynthesis?
    (A) energy + 6O2 + 6 H2
         C5HO12 + 6O2
    (B) energy + CO2 + H2O  CH2O + O2
    (C) energy + 6 CO2 + 12 H2OC6H12O6 +  6H2O + 6 O2
    (D) energy + 12 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6 O2

63.    In which part of chloroplast light reaction of photosynthesis occurs?
    (A) Grana    
    (B) Stroma    
    (C) Matrix    
    (D) All the above
64.    The raw materials for photosynthesis are -
    (A) CO2 & O2                (B) sunlight and CO2
    (C) water and chlorophyll            (D) CO2 and water


1.     A       2.    A     3.    C      4.     B     5.      B      6.     A    7.     A    

8.     A       9.    B     10.   B    11.   C     12.   D     13.   C    14.   B    

15.   C     16.    D     17.   C    18.   D    19.   A      20.   B    21.   C    

22.    A    23.    C    24.    C    25.    D    26.    A    27.    B    28.    A

29.    B    30.    C    31.    D    32.    B    33.    A    34.    B    35.    D    

36.    D    37.    C    38.    C    39.    D    40.    C    41.    B    42.    A    

43.    C    44.    C    45.    B    46.    C    47.    A    48.    A    49.    B    

50.    A    51.    A    52.    A    53.    D    54.    D    55.    A    56.    D

57.    B    58.    B    59.    C    60.    D    61.    A    62.    C    63.    A    

64.    D    



   Fill in the blanks
1.    Plants stores food materials in the form of __________.
2.    Green plants are __________ as they synthesize their own food materials.
3.    Chlorophyll pigments are present in __________.
4.    Plants in take __________ and release __________ during photosynthesis.
5.    __________ is a non-chlorophyllous plant.
6.    __________ pigment helps in trapping solar energy.
7.    __________ are the pores present on leaf surface for exchange of gases.
8.    Insectivorous plants are called __________ heterotrophs.
9.    Fungi shows __________ mode of nutrition.
10.    Lichens are the symbiotic association between __________ & __________.
11.    Loss of water vapours through plants surface is called __________.
12.    __________ is regarded as kitchen of cell.
13.    __________ is the life supporting process over earth.
14.    Opening and closing of stomata is controlled by __________.
15.    Fungus always grows in __________ and __________ conditions.


True or False
16.    Fungi are useful and harmful both.
17.    Mostly plants are autotrophs.
18.    Only green coloured plants can perform photosynthesis.
19.    In desert plants green stem act as photosynthetic part.
20.    Plants can intake nitrogen through stomata.
21.    Animals are heterotrophs in nature.
22.    Carbon dioxide is released during photosynthesis.
23.    The end product of photosynthesis is protein.
24.    During photosynthesis solar energy is converted into chemical energy.
25.    Ultimate source of energy for all living organisms is solar energy.


    1.    Starch            2.    Autotrophic        3.    Chloroplast
    4.    CO2, O2        5.    Cuscuta or Amarbel    6.    Chlorophyll
    7.    Stomata         8.    Parital            9.    Saprotorphic
    10.    Algae & Fungi        11.    Transpiration         12.    Chloroplast         
    13.    Photosynthesis    14.    Guard cells         15.    Wet, Warm        


    16.    (T)    17.    (T)    18.    (F)    19.    (T)    50.    (F)    
    21.    (T)    22.    (F)    23.    (F)    24.    (T)    25.    (T)

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