Forests are one of the most usefull reneuable resources. They provide habitat to many type of animals & plants.
The forest is a biotic community spread over a large area of land & composed of tall trees, herbs, shrubs, climbers & wild animals.
INTERDEPENDENCE OF PLANT & ANIMALS
A forest is home to many kinds of plants, animals & microorganism. These living organisms depend on each other for their survival.
DEPENDENCE OF ANIMALS ON PLANT
1. For food :
All animals depend for their food directly or indirectly on green plants. Herbivores feed on plant material directly while carnivores feed on the herbivores.
2. For Oxygen :
Plants produce oxygen during photosynthesis and animals use this oxygen for respiration.
3. For shelter :
Some animals depend on plants for shelter and safety. Trees provide protection from rain and shade from the heat of the sun to the animals. Most of the birds make their nest on branches of trees. Monkeys, apes and bats also live on trees.
DEPENDENCE OF PLANTS ON ANIMALS
1. For Carbon Dioxide :
Animals produce carbon dioxide during respiration which is released in the atmosphere. Plants use this carbon dioxide for preparing food by the process of photosynthesis. In this way plants play an important role in maintaining carbondioxide and oxygen balance in nature.
2. For Pollen and Seed Dispersal :
A number of insects, birds and bats help in pollination. Some animals help in dispersal of fruits and seeds.
3. For Supplying Nutrients :
Animal excreta and their dead bodies add nutrients to the soil. They act as manure and provide mineral for plant growth.
RECYCLING OF NUTRIENTS IN A FOREST
Plants are called producers as they can produce their own food. They are also called autotrophs. Animals are called consumers they cannot produce their own food & depends on plants.
Animals are also called heterotrophs. Decomposers are the micro organisms which break down dead remains of plant and animals into simpler substances & release these nutrient into soil, water & air.
The process of food transfer from plants through a series of organisms with repeated eating and being eaten is called a food chain.
For example, a grasshopper eats a green plants, a frog eats a grasshopper a frog is eaten by a snake and snake is eaten by an eagle
Plant --> Grasshopper ---> Frog ---> Snake ---> Eagle
Food and energy get transferred several times between organisms but ends with dead animals and plants. Bodies of dead organism are then broken down into simpler nutrients in the soil by decomposers.
All food chains are interlinked. This interconnected network of food chains is called food web.
For example, grass or plants may be eaten by grasshoppers as well as rabbits, cattle and deer