• The day-to.day condition of the atmosphere at a place with respect to the temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-speed, etc.,
    is called the weather at  that   place. 
  • The weather is generally not the same on any two days and week after week. 
  • The maximum temperature ofthe day occurs generally In the afternoon while the minimum temperature occurs in the early morning. 
  • All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The sun is a huge sphere of hot gases at a very high temperature.
    The distance of the sun from us is  very large. Even then the energy sent out by the sun is so huge that it is the source 
    of all heat and light on the earth. So, the sun is the primary source of energy that causes changes in the weather. 



  • The average weather pattem taken over a long time, is called the climate of the place.
    The tropical and the polar regions are the two regions of the earth, which have severe climatic conditions. 
  • Climate is the average weather of an area. 
  • Temperature and rainfall are twomost important factors which effect the climate of an area. 
  • Microclimate represents the climatic conditions which are present at local scale. 
  • Macroclimate represents the climatic conditions which are present at large scale. Forest is an example of macroclimate. 
  • The Ecological niche of an organism represents the range of conditions that it can tolerate, the resources it utilises,
    and its functional role in the ecological system. 
  • Each speCies has a distinct niche, and no two species are believed to occupy exactly the same, niche. 



  •  Animals are adapted to the conditions in which they Animals are adapted to survive in the conditions in which they live.
    Animals living in very cold and hot climate must possess special features to protect themselves against the extreme cold or heat.
    Features and habits that help animals to adapt to their surroundings are a result of the process of evolution.
  • Adaptations may be defined as the characteristics or living forms to develop, over a period of time certain morphological,
    anatomical, physiological, and ecological features which enable them to survive and reproduce within the limits of a particular environment. 
    E.g. fish, whales, aquatic plants are adapted to live in water, birds and bats in air and cacti, insects, camels in deserts . 

(a) Aquatic adaptations: 
    (i) In Animals: Animals that live in water are called aquatic animals. 
    ·    They have a streamlined body that makes it easier for them to move in water. They have gills for breathing in water.
         Fins and the tail help them to swim. The scales on their body provide protection. Bony fishes have air spaces in their bodies to help them float.
        Common aquatic animals are fishes, whales, crabs, octopus, etc. 



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