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TRANSPORTATION & EXCRETION

TRANSPORTATION & EXCRETION

    Plants & animals both required food for; air & water for the maintenance & breeding of a cell. Each has to be supplied to the cell of the body in a right quantity .
    The transport of material in plants is carried out by the vascular tissue.

A)  Vascular Tissue :
     There are 2 types of vascular tissues found in plants 

  • Xylem : Xylem transport water & nutrient upwards from the roots to the leave. Evaporation of water from the leaves during transpiration produces a pulling       force causing water to move up  
  • Phloem : It carry the food prepared by the leaves during photosynthesis downward to all parts of the plants.     

B)    Transportation of water, minerals & food :

  • The roots have root hairs which increase the surface area of the root for absorption of water & minerals dissolved in water. The root hair come in contact  with water present between soil particles.

  

C)    Traspiration pulls :

  • The water move from the root hair to the xylem in the root. The absorbed water then moves up the stem through the xylem by the force developed in the   leaves by the transpiration, called transpiration pull.

D)    Ascent of sap :

  • The fluid containing water & dissolved nutrient is called sap. The movement of sap through the xylem is called ascent of sap

E)    Translocation :

  • The food is transported from the leaves to other parts of the plant, called translocation.

EXCRETION IN PLANT

  • Plants have no special organs for excretion. The excess amount of CO2 & water removed out through stomata  also from the outer surface of stem, leave, fruit etc.       
  • Some waste products are colleced in vacuoles in the leaves & bark of trees & excrete them by shedding the leaves & barks       
  • Some waste products which are harmless, stored inside the plant body. Rubber raphides are examples of such products.  

TRANSPIRATION

    The process of loss of water in the form of vapours through the aerial parts of the plant is called transpiration.

 

TRANSPORTATION IN ANIMALS

    In higher animals, digested food, gases & waste material are carried by blood. Blood flows through a network of tubes, which are called blood vessles & form a system known as circulatory system.

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

    It consist of heart, blood vessels & the blood.

1)    Heart :

  •  It is a muscular organ, which pumps blood around the blood vessels.
  • It has four chambers viz left auricle, left ventricle, right auricle and right ventricle.
  • Ventricles are the two lower chambers. The left ventricle receives blood from the left auricle and pumps up into aorta. Aorta is the largest artery in the body.
  • The right ventricle receives blood from the right auricle and pumps it through pulmonary trunk of the lungs.
  • The four chamber open and close about 100000 times a day.
  • Heartbeat that we can hear is due to contraction and relaxation of heart muscles or cardiac muscles. Heart in a healthy body beats around 72 times in a minute.
  • Contraction is held in auricles and relaxation is done in ventricles.
  • Contraction of cardiac muscles is called systole and relaxation of cardiac muscle is called diastole.
  • During diastole, heart receives blood and during systole, ventricles contract to pump blood into blood vessels.
  • Sound of heartbeat is called ‘Lub-dub’ sound. ‘Lub’ is due to contraction of ventricles and ‘dub’ is due to closer of auricle valves.
  • The heartbeat is measured by an instrument called ‘stethoscope’. A device makes the sound of heartbeat large. Noting of pulse rate
...
noting the number of times heart beats in a minute.

2)    Blood vessels :

  • These are blood-filled tubes.
  • Arteries, veins and capillaries called blood vessels.

3)   Arteries :

  • Arteries are thick walled blood vessels, making up the arterial system and carrying blood away from the heart.
  • Smaller arteries are called arterioles.  
  • Arterioles are branched off from arteries.  
  • Except in the pulmonary arteries, the blood contains oxygen.
  • In all arteries, blood carries dissolved food and waste, brought into the heart by veins and is then transferred to arteries.  
  • Arteries carry the food to the cells and waste to the kidneys.  

4)    Veins :

  • Veins are wide, thick walled, blood vessels.
  • Veins make the venous system and carries blood back to the heart.  
  • Small veins are called venules.
  • Veins contain valves to stop blood flowing backwards due to gravity and are formed of merging venules  
  • The blood in the veins leading from the digestive system and liver also carries dissolved food. This is transferred to the arteries in the heart.

    

5)    Capillaries :

  • Narrow, thin walled blood vessels branching off arterioles to form a complex network is called capillaries.
  • Dissolved food and oxygen pass out through the walls of capillaries to the body cells and carbon dioxide and waste pass in
  • The capillaries of the digestive organs and liver also pick up food
  • Finally, capillaries join up to form small veins called venules  

6)    Blood :

  • It is a connective tissue in fluid form
  • An adult human has around 5.5 litres of blood
  • A red fluid flows in the body
  • It supplies food and oxygen to every body cell
  • It removes wastes from the cells
  • It regulates body temperature
  • It protects against infection

 

CONSTITUENT OF BLOOD

1)  RBC (Red Blood Corpuscles) :

  • This is also called erythrocytes.
  • RBC is a red disc shaped cells with no nuclei.
  • They are made in the bone marrow and contain haemoglobin (an iron compound that gives blood a dark red colour).
  • RBC combines with oxygen to form oxy-haemoglobin and the blood becomes bright red.
  • The red cells pass the oxygen to the body cells by the process of diffusion and then returns to the -lungs with haemoglobin.

2)     WBC (White Blood Corpuscles) :

  • This is also called leucocytes.
  • WBC is large, opaque blood cells, which helps in body defence.
  • WBC makes antibodies. Antibodies produce antigens, which combat against any bacterial or viral infection. Antigens  are mostly protein.

3)     Plasma :

  • It is a pale liquid with 90% water in it.
  • Plasma contains the blood cells.  
  • Plasma carries dissolved food for the body cells, waste matter, and carbon dioxide secreted by them. 

4)    Platelets :

  • It is also called thrombocytes.
  • It is a very small, disc shaped bodies with no nuclei.
  • It is made in the bone marrow.
  • They gather particularly in an injured area, where they are important in clotting the blood.

 

REMOVAL OF WASTE

    The process of removing waste from the body is called excretion
    Several organs of body is involved in the process of excretion – 

  • The waste generated in the process of digestion is expelled from the large intestine through anus.      
  • Carbon dioxide produced in the process of respiration is expelled from the lungs through the nostrils.

 

EXCRETION IN HUMANS

    Chemical waste like urea are excreted by urinary system & skin.The excretory system in human beings consists of the following organs: 

  • A pair of kidneys
  • A pair of ureters
  • The urinary bladder
  • Urethra

 

1)   Urinary system or Excretory system :

a)   Kidneys :
    In our body there is a pair of kidneys located in the abdomen, one each on either side of the vertebral column. Each kidney is brick red in colour and bean-shaped. It weighs about 150 g and is about 12 cm in length, 6 cm in width and 3 cm in thickness

b)  Uterers :
    The ureters are two thin-walled, urine carrying ducts. A ureter originates from each kidney and is about 30 cm in length. The ureters run downward and open into the urinary bladder

c)    Urinary Bladder :
    It is a bag-like structure in which urine is stored. Its size and position varies with the amount of urine it contains.

d)   Urethra :
    The urethra is the duct which finally discharges urine from the body


2)   Function of Kidney

  • They filter wastes from the blood
  • They help in the formation of urine
  • They help in eliminating harmful substances from the body.      
  • ·They maintain the water and mineral balance in the body.  

3)    Skin :

  • Skin is the outer body covering of human body. It is made up of several tissue layers cushioned by fats underneath. 
  • Skin has many functions. Skin provides stimulation, protects against infection, prevents from drying out, regulates body temperature, stores fat, makes vitamin D, and above all excretes waste such as sweat.

 

EXERCISE I

Q.1    Name the two tissues of plants which transport materials.

Q.2    What are the lower chambers of the heart called?

Q.3    Where are nephrons found in human body?

Q.4    Name the liquid part of the blood.

Q.5    Where is the dirty blood of our body filtered?

Q.6    Which muscular organ pumps blood around the blood vessels?

Q.7    Which ventricle receives blood from left auricle?

Q.8    Why is blood needed by all parts of the body?

Q.9    List the human excretory organs.

Q.10    State two vital functions of kidney.

Q.11    Why is transpiration important for plants?

Q.12    What is blood?

Q.13    State four functions of blood.

Q.14    State four differences between arteries and veins.

Q.15    What are capillaries? Why do they have thin walls?

Q.16    Write the components of blood. What are the functions of blood?

 

EXERCISE II

Q.1    The process by which a plant loses water through the stomata is called -
    (A) Excretion                                        (B) Transpiration
    (C)  Respiration                                    (D) Sweating 

Q.2    Urea is a waste produced in the process of the breaking down of -
    (A) Protein                                          (B) Fats 
    (C)  Carbohydrate                              (D) Sugar 

Q.3    The smallest functional unit of kidney is  -
    (A) Nephron                                       (B) Capillary
    (C)  Urethra                                        (D) Ureter 

Q.4    Which component of blood helps in clotting ?
    (A) RBC                                            (B) WBC
    (C)  Platelets                                      (D) Plasma 

Q.5    The opening of urinary bladder is known as -
    (A) Nephron                                      (B) Urethra
    (C) Ureter                                          (D) Nephridia 

Q.6    The cause of wilting of plant is  -
    (A) More absorption 
    (B) More transpiration
    (C) Low respiration 
    (D) None 

Q.7    Blood from the lungs enter the heart through the -
    (A) Pulmonary artery     
    (B) Arota
    (C)  Pulmonary vein    
    (D) Venacava 

Q.8    Pumping station of blood is -
    (A) Heart                                            (B) Auricle
    (C)  Blood vessel                               (D) Ventricle

Q.9    Bean shaped excretory organ of human is -
    (A) Kidney                                         (B) Urethra 
    (C)  Ureter                                         (D) Urinary bladder 

Q.10    It transport the water & minerals from root to leaves in plants -
    (A) Xylem                                          (B) Cambium 
    (C) Phloem                                         (D) Stomata 

Q.11    In plants excess amount of carbon dioxide ascaps through the  -
    (A) Stomata                                       (B) Phloem
    (C)  Xylem                                        (D) Cambium

 

ANSWER KEY

1.     B            2.    A            3.     A         4.      C
5.     B           6.     B           7.     C          8.     A
9.    A           10.    A          11.    A    

 

EXERCISE III

1.    Which of these has a closed type of circulatory system ?
    (A) Cockroach    (B) Fish    (C) Scorpion    (D) Mollusc

2.    Signle heart circuit occurs in :
    (A) Fishes    (B) Forgs    (C) Reptiles    (D) Man

3.    Four chambered heart is found in :
    (A) Cobra    (B) Tortoise    (C) Salamander    (D) Crocodile

4.    Right atrium of mammalian heart receives blood from :
    (A) Sinus venosus    (B) Pulmonary veins    (C) Precavals    (D)Pre-and postcavals

5.    Mitral valve in mammals guards the opening between :
    (A) Right atrium and right ventricle    (B) Left atrium and left ventricle    (C) Right atrium and left ventricle    (D) Left atrium and right ventricle

6.    Tricuspid valve is present between :
    (A) Right atrium and ventricle    (B) The two atria
    (C) The two ventricles        (D) Left atrium and ventricle

7.    Eustachian valve is found in :
    (A) Middle ear    (B) Internal ear    (C) Left ventricle of heart    (D) Right auricle of heart

8.    Heart is covered by :
    (A) Peritoneum    (B) Pleural membrane    (C) Pericardium    (D) Visceral membrane

9.    Mitral valve connects :
    (A) Left atrium and left ventricle    (B) Left atrium and right ventricle
    (C) Right atrium and left ventricle    (D) Right atrium and right ventricle

10.    Which of the following has the thickest walls ?
    (A) Right ventricle    (B) Left ventricle    (C) Right auricle    (D) Left auricle

11.    Pacemaker influences : 
    (A) Contraction of pelvis    (B) Hearbeat rate
    (C) Flow of blood in heart    (D) Contraction of heart muslces

12.    The pacemaker of heart is :
    (A) AV node    (B) SA node    (C) SV node    (D) Tricuspid valve

13.    Role of pacemaker is to :
    (A) Increase heartbeat    (B) Decrease heartbeat    (C) Initiate heartbeat        (D) Control blood supply to heart

14.    Contraction of right ventricle pumps blood into 
    (A) Dorsal aorta    (B) Pulmonary artery    (C) Pulmonary vein    (D) Coronary artery

15.    Pacemaker is situated in heart :
    (A) In the wall of right atrium    (B) On the interauricular septum
    (C) On interventicular septum    (D) In the wall of left atrium

16.    The impulse of heartbeat originates from :
    (A) SA node        (B) Vagus nerve
    (C) AV node        (D) Cardiac nerve

17.    The heart of a healthy man beats normally per minute:
    (A) 85-90 times    (B) 80-90 times    (C) 70-80 times    (D) 60-70 times

18.    Systole causes :
    (A) Entry of blood into lungs    (B) Entry of blood into heart
    (C) Exit of blood from heart    (D) Exit of blood from ventricles

19.    Haemoglobin is :
    (A) Vitamin    (B) Skin pigment    (C) Respir atory pigment    (D) Carbohydrate

20.    'Dupp' sound is produced during closure of :
    (A) Semilunar valves    (B) Biscuspid valve    (C) Tricuspid valve    (D) Both (B) and (C)

21.    Typical 'lubb-dupp' sounds heard during heartbeat are due to :
    (A) Closing of bicuspid and tricupid valves
    (B) Closing of semilunar valves
    (C) Blood under pressure through aorta
    (D) Closure of bicuspid-tricuspid valves followed by semilunar valves

22.    The instrument used to hear heart sound is :
    (A) Electrocardiograph        (B) Sphygmomanometer
    (C) Stethoscope        (D) Haemometer

23.    In adult man, normal BP is :
    (A) 100/80 mm Hg    (B) 120/80 mm Hg    (C) 100/120 mm Hg    (D) 80/120 mm Hg

24.    The instrument by which BP of man is determined :
    (A) Ultrasound    (B) BP meter    (C) Stethoscope       (D) Sphygmomanometer

25.    William Harvey is known for discovery of :
    (A) Blood circulation    (B) Blood clotting    (C) Respiration    (D) Digestion

26.    Mammals are said to have double circulation. It means :
    (A) Blood vessels are paired
    (B) There are two types of blood vessels attachedto every organ
    (C) There are two systems, one from the heart to the lungs and back to hte rest of the body    (D) The blood circulates twice through the heart

27.    In mammals, veins differs from arteries in having :
    (A) Thicker walls        (B) Deeply present
    (C) Carry blood away from heart    (D) Internal valves

28.    Oxygenated blood returns from lungs to the heart through :
    (A) Coronary vein    (B) Pulmonary vein    (C) Coronary artery    (D) Pulmonary artery

29.    The smallest blood vessel in the body is :
    (A) Capillary    (B) Artery    (C) Vein    (D) Vena cava

30    Arteries carry oxygenated blood except :
    (A) Pulmonary    (B) Cardiac    (C) Hepatic    (D) Systemic

31.    Water will be absorbed by root hair when :
    (A) Concentration of solutes in the cell sap is high    (B) Plant is rapidly respiring
    (C) They are separated from soil by permeable membrane        
    (D) Concentration of salts in the soil is high

32.    Which one of the following is connected with transport of water in plants?
    (A) Phloem    (B) Xylem    (C) Epidermis    (D) Cambium

33.    If the cut end of a tree is put in eosin solution 
    (A) Leaves remain fresh but ascent of sap stops    
    (B) Phloem gets coloured because of ascent of sap
    (C) Xylem elements get stained showing ascent of sap through them
    (D) Ascent of sap stops
34.    The principal pathways by which water is translocated in angiosperms is :
    (A) Xylem vessel system    (B) Xylem and phloem
    (C) Sieve tubes members of phloem     (D) Sieve cells of phloem

35.    The carbohydrate synthesized in the leaves are transported through sieve tubes most commonly in the form of
    (A) Glucose    (B) Triose    (C) Sucrose    (D) Soluble starch

36.    Which of the following contributes most to transport of water from the ground to the leaves of a tall tree?
    (A) Breakdown of ATP            
    (B) Cohesion of water and transpiration pull
    (C) Root pressure                
    (D) Capillary rise of water in xylem

37.    Due to low atmospheric pressure the rate of transpiration will
    (A) Increase                        (B) Decrease slowly
    (C) Decrease rapidly                (D) Remain unaffected

38.    The transpiration in plants will be lowest
    (A) When there is high humidity in the atmosphere
    (B) There is excess of water in the cell
    (C) Environmental conditions are very dry    
    (D) High wind velocity

39.    Rate of transpiration in a dorsiventral leaf is
    (A) Greater at the upper surface            (B) Greater at the lower surface
    (C) Equal at both the surfaces            (D) None of the above

40.    Which of the following is not a function of transpiration?
    (A) Excretion of minerals                (B) Cooling of leaves
    (C) Uptake of water                    (D) Uptake of minerals

 

1.    B               2.    A                 3.    D             4.    D
5.    B               6.    A                 7.    D             8.    C
9.    A              10.   B               11.    B           12.    B
13.    C           14.    B               15.    A           16.    A
17.    C           18.    B               19.    C           20.    A
21.    D           22.    C               23.    B           24.    D
25.    A           26.    C               27.    D           28.    B
29.    A           30.    A               31.    A           32.    B
33.    C           34.    A              35.    C            36.    B
37.    A           38.    A              39.    B            40.    A

 

EXERCISE-I

Section - A

·    Fill in the blanks
1.    ____________ cells are non-nucleated.
2.    ____________ is a pigment which carries oxygen.
3.    ____________ help in clotting of blood
4.        The artery which carries deoxygenated blood is ____________.
5.        The vein which carries oxygenated blood is ____________.
6.        Sponges and hydra do not possess ____________.
7.        A group of cells specialised to perform a specific function forms a ____________.
8.    ____________ force makes the water rise up in the stem.
9.    Transpiration in plants is a similar to _______________in human beings
10.    ____________helps in removal of nitrogenous waste from blood in human beings.


Section - B

·    True or False    
1.      Roots of plants conduct water by the process of diffusion.        
2.    Xylem vessels transport food material in plants.                 
3.     Root hairs decrease the rate of absorption.                
4.        Urine is excreted through urethra.                                                         
5.       Some animals do not possess blood.                    
6.        Due to cold the skin turns blue.                                                                                     
7.       Haemoglobin imparts red colour to the blood.                                                       
8.       Dialysis is the process of artificial filteration of blood.                                       
9.      Normally veins carry deoxygenated blood.                
10.     Photosynthesis takes place in non-green plants.                                                     

EXERCISE-II

Section - A

·    Very short answer questions (1 mark each)
1.       How is heart beat measured by doctors ?
2.       Why are arteries thick walled whereas capillaries are thin walled ?
3.       Why is pumping of blood by heart referred to as double circulation ?
4.       “Transpiration is the price paid by plants for photosynthesis” Explain.
5.       Can a person survive with one kidney ?
6.       Why do plants wilt during transpiration ?
7.       Why are root hairs present in plants ?
8.    Capillaries are thin walled. Why?
9.    What is the role of transpiration in plants?
10.    Write down functions of WBCs in human body.

Section - B

·    Short answer questions (2 marks each)
1.       Define 
    (i) Plasma             (ii) Corpuscles
2.       Give one function of :
    (i) Red blood cells                          (ii) White blood cells        (iii) Platelets
3.       How does blood regulate the body temperature of body ?
4.      Name the blood vessels which carry: (i) Pure blood         (ii) Impure blood.
5.       Define double circulation.
6.       Why in severe winters, the skin turns blue?
7.       Why are white patches seen on the clothes in summer season?
8.       How does sweating produce cooling?
9.    What is heart beat?
10.    Give differences between arteries and veins.

Section - C

·    Long answer questions (5 marks each)
1.       Write and explain the components of blood.
2.       Explain osmosis with regard to sugar solution.
3.       Draw a neat and labelled diagram of excretory system.
4.       Draw a neat diagram to show the condition of a plant when :
    (a)  transpiration is least.
    (b)  transpiration is normal.
    (c)  transpiration is in excess.
5.       “Plants need both oxygen as well carbon dioxide, but both are included as waste”. Comment.


EXERCISE-III

Section - A

·    MCQ’s with one option correct
1.      The blood cells which transport oxygen are :
    (A) RBC’s                       (B) WBC’s        (C) Blood platelets    (D) Blood plasma.

2.       The blood cells, which help in blood clotting are :
    (A) RBC’s        (B) WBC’s        (C) Blood platelets    (D) Blood plasma.

3.       The blood vessels which constitute the circulatory system are :
    (A) Arteries only    (B) Veins only        (C) Capillaries only    (D) All of these.

4.       The number of chambers present in human heart are :
    (A) 2            (B)3            (C) 4            (D) 6.
5.       The blood vessel which carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs is known as: 
    (A) Pulmonary vein    (B) Pulmonary artery     (C) Aorta        (D) Vena cava.

6.    In which side of heart, pure blood is found
    (A) Right        (B) Left        (C) Both of above    (D) None of these

7.    Nitrogenous waste of human being is
    (A) Urea        (B) Ammonia        (C) Uric acid        (D) None of these

8.    Thinest blood vessels is
    (A) Arteries        (B) Veins        (C) Capillaries        (D) Both (A) and (B)

9.    Vascular tissues in plants include
    (A) Xylem        (B) Phloem        (C) Both (A) & (B)    (D) Stomata

10.    Excretory organs are
    (A) Kidney        (B) Lungs        (C) Skin        (D) All of these

Section -B

·    One word or one sentence answers
1.       Blood vessels which carry oxygenated blood.
2.     Blood component which helps in clotting.                                                             
3.       Blood vessels which carry blood to heart.                                                            
4.       Instrument used to measure blood pressure.                                                      
5.       End products of photosynthesis.                                                                           
6.       Waste gas formed during respiration.                                                                   
7.       Conduction of water and food by plants is through.                                             
8.    Membrane which allows only one kind of molecules to pass.                             
9.       Loss of water as water vapours from plants.                                                        
10.       Number of beats of heart per minute. 

Section - C

·    Match the Column 
1.    Column I                        Column II

    (A) Chlorophyll                             (P) Xylem
    (B) Green colour of leaves                                                   (Q) Haemoglobin
    (C) Transportation of water                                                  (R) Chlorophyll
    (D) Cells which fight against germs                              (S) absorb sunlight
    (E) Red colour of blood                                                         (T) Plasma
    (F) Liquid part of blood                                                        (U) White blood cells

ANSWERS

EXERCISE I
Section - A

    1.    Red blood        2.    Haemoglobin
    3.    Platelets        4.        Pulmonary artery    5.        Pulmonary vein
    6.        Blood            7.        Tissue
    8.    Transpiration pull    9.    Sweating        10.     Kidney

Section - B

    1.      [t]                    2.    [F]                   3.     [F]                        4.   [T]                     5.       [T]                                                                                                                 
    6.     [T]                   7.     [T]                  8.     [T]                        9.   [T]                     10.     [F]                                                    

EXERCISE  III

Section - A

    1.    (A)      2.    (C)      3.   (D)        4.  (C)         5.       (B)
    6.    (B)      7.    (A)      8.    (C)        9.  (C)        10.    (D)


Section - B

    1.       Arteries        2.     Platelets        3.       Vein
    4.       Sphygnomano metre    5.       Glucose, O2        6.       CO2
    7.       Vascular tissues    8.    Semi-permeable membrane
    9.       Transpiration         10.       72

Section - C

    1.    (A-S), (B-R), (C-P), (D-U), (E-Q), (F-T)