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MOVEMENT IN ANIMAL

INTRODUCTION

  •      The hard parts of an animal body present inside or outside the body collectively form the skeletal system.
  •      Skeleton serves as the reservoir of many minerals, like calcium and phosphate.
  •      The marrow of the long bones is the site for the haemopoiesis, i.e., formation of blood cells (RBC, WBC, plallets).
  •     The skeleton plays a vital role in movement and locomotion.
  •     Human skeleton consists of 206 pieces of bones.
  •     In infants 306 bones are present.

    

 

•     Girdle bones: These provide a connection between the axial skeleton and limbs. The two girdles are nam ed as pectoral and pelvic girdles, respectively.

                                                                         

                                                        JOINTS

    Joints are the place of articulation between two or more bones or between a bone and a cartilage. Due to the presence of a number of joints, the movement of the different body parts and the whole body is possible.
    Types of Joints :
    (i)     Fixed or immovable or fibrous joint: There is no space between the bones. The attached bones are tightly held with the help of white fibrous connective tissue. e.g., Joints of skull bones.
    (ii)    Slightly movable or cartilaginous joint: It is an articulation between the bones that allows very little movement. e.g., Between bones of vertebrae and pelvic girdle.
    (iii)     Movable joint or synovial joint: It is a joint which allows the movement of articulating bones such that they can move extensively upon each other. The space between bones is called synovial cavity. This cavity remains filled with a viscous and slippery synovial fluid. These are of following types :
    (A)     Ball & socket joint : One bone forms a ball like head that fits into a socket formed in the other bone. The bone with head can move nearly in all the directions. e.g. Shoulder JOint, hip joint.
    (B)    Hinge joint : This joint allows movements in one plane only. e.g. Elbow joint & knee joint.
    (C)    Pivot joint: This joint allows only a rotatory movement of one bone on the other stationary bone. e.g. Atlas and axis vertebrae.
    (D)    Angular joint I Ellipsoid I CondylOid joint - This allows movement in two directions -side to side and back & forth . e.g. Wrist joint.
    (E)    Gliding Joint: This joint permits sliding movement of two bones over each other, e.g. Carpal in wrist and tarsals in ankle .
        
MUSCLE BONE RELATION 

        Movement of organs and different parts of the body are brought about by the contraction of skeletal muscles inserted into the articulating bones.

  •     Ligaments : Flexible connective tissue bands called ligaments stabilize the joints by holding the articulating bones together.
  •     Tendons (Insertion of skeletal muscles) : The skeletal muscles are attached to the bones by tendons. Tendons are formed of white fibrous connective tissue.
  •     Muscle movement: Muscle are made up of two kind of contractile proteins -Actin & Myosin, which are helpful in locomotion. Muscle work in pairs when one of tham contracts the other muscle of the pair relaxes. To have the bone in the opposite direction,
...
relaxed muscle contracts to pull the bone towards its original position while the first relaxes. A muscle can only pull. It can't push. Thus, two muscles have to work together to move a bone.

MOVEMENT IN DiFFERENT ANIMALS

(a)     Movement In Amoeba : Amoeba is an unicellular organism which can move with pseudopodia (false feet).

(b)     Movement In Earthworm:

  •     Earthworm doesn't have bones. It has muscle which help In locomotion with setae (hook like chitinous structure ).
  •     During movement it first extends the front part of the body keeping the rear portion fixed to the ground with the help of setae.
  •     Then it fixes the front end and releases the rear end . It then shortens the body and pulls the rear end forward .
  •     By repeating such expansions and contractions it can move through soil.

(c)     Movement In Snail :

  •    Snail is a molluscan which doesn't has bones but has muscles.
  •    A shell is present as outer skeleton During movement a thick muscular foot comes out of the shell's opening.
  •    By the contraction & expansion of the foot muscle it can do slow movement at a su bstratum .

(d )     Movement In Cockroach :

  •   Cockroach is an arthropod which has jointed appendages. It has three pair of legs and two pairs of wings attached to the thorax.
  •   The cockroaches have distinct muscles.

    (i)    walking muscles -muscles attach to legs.
    (ii)    flying muscles -thorax muscles attach to wings.

(e)    Move ment In Fish:

  •     Fishes are aquatic animals. Head and tail of the fish are smaller than the middle portion of the body. This body shape is called stream lined which is helpful to reduce friction during movement. It has caudal , dorsal (impaired), pectoral, pelvic (paired) fins.
  •     Fishes have skeletal & muscular system both. During swimming, muscles make the front part of the body curve to one side and the tail part swings towards the opposite side. Then quickly the body and tail curve to the other side.
  •    This makes a jerk and pushes the body forward. A series of jerks make the fish swim ahead . This is helped by fins of the tail.
  •  
  •     Thus paired fins help in the maintaining balance of body during swimming while irnpaired provide jerk.

(f)     Movement In Snake:

  •    Snakes are reptiles which can do creeping movement with the help of skeletal and muscular system. Muscles are interconnected to long backbone, ribs and skin.
  •    The snakes body curves into many loops. Each loop gives it a forward push by pressing against the ground . These movements occur rapidly in its body that show a very fast movement.

(g)     Movement In Birds:

  •     Birds (Aves) can fly in the air and walk on the ground and some birds like duck can swim in water also.
  •     In birds skeletal (with hollow bones) and muscular system are present. Foreli mbs are modified into wings. Shoulder bones are strong and breast bones are modified to hold rnuscles of flight which are used to move the wings up and down.
  •     While bones of hind limbs are typical for walking and perching .

Some Important Terminologies
    •     Skeletal system: The hard parts of an animal body present inside or outside the body collectively form the skeletal system.
    

EXERCISE - I

Q.1    Define movement .

Q.2    Name various parts of axial skeleton.

Q.3    What are jOints? Describe the types of joints.

Q.4    Describe the movement in birds and how it is differ from insect flight.

Q.5    How can fish swim in water?

 

EXERCISE - II

Q.1    Number of bones present in vertebral column in human :
    (A) 26     (B) 36                (C) 33     (D) 29

Q.2     Joint which allows movements only in one plane is known as 
    (A) Ball & socket joint                 (B) Gliding joint
    (C) Pivot joint                     (D) Hinge joint

Q.3     Tissue which connect bone to muscle is known as 
    (A) Muscle     (B) Ligament        (C) Tendon     (D) Neuron

Q.4    Appendicular skeleton is made up of 
    (A) Girdles     (B) Hind limb bones        (C) Fore limb bones     (D) All

Q.5     Fixed or immovable joints is present in 
    (A) vertebrae    (B) shoulder joint        (C) skull bones     (D) knee joint

Q.6     Which can do skeletal &muscular movement both?
    (A) Earthworm     (B) Snail            (C) Fish     (D) Cockroach

Q.7     Total number of ribs in human body 
    (A) 10 pairs     (B) 11 pairs            (C) 12 pairs     (D) 13 pairs

Q.8     Wings are modified 
    (A) Limbs     (B) Forelimbs            (C) Hind limbs     (D) None of these

Q.9     Pectoral girdle is present in 
    (A) Hand     (B) Shoulder            (C) waist     (D) Leg

Q.10     Which one of the following type of joint is present in our neck?    
    (A) Ball & Socket    (B) Hinge        (C) Fixed    (D) Pivot

ANSWER KEY

1.     C    2.    D    3.     C    4.      D
5.     C    6.     C    7.     C    8.    B
9.    B    10.     D    

 

EXERCISE - III

1.    Skull of Man is :-
    (A) Mono condylic    (B) Di condylic
    (C) Tricondylic    (D) Tetra condylic


2.    In camel number of cervical vertebra is :-
    (A) 6    (B) 7    (C) 8    (D) 9


3.    In human joint between bones of skull is :- 
    (A) Fibrous joint    (B) Hinge joint
    (C) Synovial joint    (D) None


4.    Smallest bone in Man is ;-
    (A) Nasal    (B) Patella
    (C) Stapes    (D) Palatine


5.    Os Innominatum consist of :- 
    (A) Pubis    (B) Ischium
    (C) Ilium    (D) All of the above


6.    Total number bone in Appendicular skeleton of human :-
    (A) 126    (B) 80
    (C) 44    (D) 33


7.    Longest bone of human skeleton :-
    (A) Femur    (B) Humerus
    (C) Tibia    (D) Radius


8.    Elbow joint is :-
    (A) Ball & socket    (B) Pivot
    (C) Gliding    (D) Hinge


9.    Total number of skull skeleton bones in human :-
    (A) 29    (B) 49
    (C) 39    (D) 19


10.    Number of floating ribs in human :-
    (A) 6 pairs    (B) 5 pairs
    (C) 3 pairs    (D) 2 pairs


11.    Single bone of lower jaw in human is :-
    (A) Maxilla    (B) Mandible
    (C) Squamosal    (D) Pterygoid


12.    Largest mammlian vertebra is :-
    (A) Thoracic    (B) Sacral
    (C) Lumbar    (D) Cervical


13.    Deltoid Ridge. is found in which one of following bone :-
    (A) Radius    (B) Ulna
    (C) Humerus    (D) Femur


14.    Talus, calcaneum are found in :-
    (A) Hind limb of frog
    (B) Hind limb of Human 
    (C) Fore limb of man
    (D) Fore limb of rabbit


15.    Digital formula of Hand of Human is :-
    (A) 23333    (B) 03322
    (C) 33332    (D) 02233


16.    Digital formula of foot of Human is :-
    (A) 03332    (B) 03333
    (C) 03322    (D) 23333


17.    Heaviest vertebra in man is ;-
    (A) Atlas    (B) Axis
    (C) Lumbar    (D) Thoracic


18.    Joint between Incus & stapes is :-
    (A) Ball & socket joint       (B) Hinge joint
    (C) Pivot joint    (D) Gliding joint


19.    Joint between malleus & incus is ;-
    (A) Gliding joint
    (B) Ball & socket joint
    (C) Pivot joint    (D) Hinge joint


20.    Axis vertebra identified by :-
    (A) Olecranon process    (B) Odontoblast
    (C) Odontoid process    (D) None


21.    A joint between humerus and radio Ulna ;-
    (A) Ball & socket    (B) Pivot
    (C) Gliding    (D) Hinge


22.    Total number of vertebra in Man ;-
    (A) 30    (B) 33    (C) 40    (D) 35


23.    In Human, the jaw suspensorium is  :-
    (A) Auto stylic    (B) Amphi stylic
    (C) Cranio stylic    (D) Hyostylic


24.    Olecranon process is found in which bone 
    (A) Proximal end of Ulna
    (B) Distal end of Ulna
    (C) Proximal end of Humerus
    (D) Proximal end of Humerus


25.    Bony sockets of jaws in which the teeth are implanted are known as :-
    (A) Alveoli    (B) Fossae
    (C) Dentaries    (D) Thecae


26.    Sacrum in Human is formed by fusion of :-
    (A) 3 vertebrae    (B) 5 vertebrae
    (C) 8 vertebrae    (D) 6 vertebrae


27.    Cervical vertebrae are characterized by the presence of :-
    (A) Long neural spine
    (B) Odontoid process  
    (C) Vertebro- arterial- canals
    (D) Flat centrum


28.    Biggest cartilage of larynx of human is :-
    (A) Arytenoid cartilage    (B) Cricoid cartilage
    (C) Thyroid cartilage
    (D) Tracheal cartilage


29.    Spinal cord passes to brain through :-
    (A) Foramen of monro
    (B) Foramen of magendie 
    (C) Foramen of ovale
    (D) Foramen of Magnum


30.    Which of following helps in rotation of the neck :-
    (A) Atlas    (B) Axis
    (C) Cervical
    (D) Occipital condyle of skull


31.    Stapes is modification of:-
    (A) Hyomandibular    (B) Palatine
    (C) Quadrate    (D) Squamosal


32.    5 Pairs of false ribs present in:-
    (A) Man    (B) Rabbit
    (C) Frog    (D) None


33.    True rib are 7 pairs in:-
    (A) Rabbit    (B) Man    (C) Both    (D) None


34.    Saddle joint is present in:-
    (A) Human    (B) Rabbit
    (C) Both    (D) Frog


35.    Presence of obturator foramen feature of:-
    (A) Frog    (B) Cockroch
    (C) Rabbit    (D) None


36.    Part of pectoral girdle is:-
    (A) Ileum    (B) Glenoid cavity
    (C) Acetabulum    (D) Sternum


37.    Humerus is different from femur by presence of:-
    (A) Spines    (B) Deltoid Ridge
    (C) Glenoid cavity    (D) Carpals


38.    Scapula part of:-
    (A) Skull    (B) Pelvic Gridle
    (C) Pectoral Girdle    (D) Vertebral column


39.    Obturator foramen present between:-
    (A) Ilium & Ischium    (B) Ischium & Pubis
    (C) Ilium & pubis    (D) None


40.    Long neck of Girraffe or camel due to:-
    (A) More number of cervical vertebra
    (B) More length of cervical vertebra    
    (C) Presence of pads between cervical vertebra
    (D) Presence of extra bony plates


41.    Number of tarsal bone in Human in each hind limb 
    (A) 2    (B) 7    (C) 6    (D) 5

42.    Sacro-iliac joint is:-
    (A) Movable    (B) Immovable
    (C) Imperfect    (D) None


43.    Trochlea of which bone fit in trochlear notch of ulna:-
    (A) Humerus    (B) Radius
    (C) Femur    (D) Scaphoid


44.    Shoulder joint present between:-
    (A) Glenoid cavity of pectoral girdle & head of humerus
    (B) Coronoid process of pectoral girdle & head of humerus 
    (C) Sigmoid notch and olecronon process of ulna
    (D) Sigmoid notch and Trochlea of humerus


45.    Typical vertebra of Human is:-
    (A) Acoelous    (B) Procoelous
    (C) Amphi coelous    (D) Amphi platyan


46.    Feature of vertebra of mammals:-
    (A) Centrum is amphi platyan
    (B) Epiphysis present
    (C) Inter vertebral disc present between two bone
    (D) All the above


47.    Demifacets present at:-
    (A) Thoracic vertebra
    (B) Lumbar vertebra
    (C) Sacral vertebra
    (D) Cervical vertebra except C7


48.    Vertebrochondral rib in man are :-
    (A) 8th , 9th  & 10th rib    (B) 7th , 8th , 9th rib
    (C) 9th , 10th  & 11th rib    (D) 6th , 7th  & 8th rib


49.    Incisor present in which bone in human :-
    (A) Premaxilla    (B) Maxilla
    (C) Palatine    (D) None


50.    Cheek teeth present on which bone in human 
    (A) Premaxilla    (B) Maxilla
    (C) Palatine    (D) None


51.    Hinge joint is:-
    (A) Elbowjoint    (B) Ankle joint
    (C) Inter phalangeal joint
    (D) All


52.    Pivot joint:-
    (A) Atlanto . Axial joint    (B) Shoulder joint
    (C) Hip joint    (D) None


53.    Study of joints known as:-
    (A) Osteology    (B) Arthrology
    (C) Craniology    (D) Kinesiology


54.    Largest forman of human body is:-
    (A) Foramen ovale     
    (B) Foramen of magendie
    (C) Foramen of magnum
    (D) Foramen of monro


55.    Total number of bone of human face:-
    (A) 10    (B) 12
    (C) 14    (D) 16


56.    Which one is bone of fore limb :
    (A) Humerus    (B) Femur
    (C) Tibia    (D) Fibula


57.    A cup shaped cavity for articulation of femur head is :
    (A) Acetabulum     (B) Glenoid cavity
    (C) Sigmoid notch    (D) Obturator foramen


58.    Friction is lessened in ball-and -socket joint by :
    (A) Coelomic fluid    (B) Synovial fluid
    (C) Pericardial fluid    (D) Mucin


59.    Arytenoid cartilages occur in :
    (A) Nose    (B) Hyoid
    (C) Stenum    (D) Larynx


60.    Which opening does not occur in a pair in bones of human?
    (A) Obturator foramen
    (B) Foramen magnum
    (C) Foramen ovalis
    (D) Fenestra rotundus


61.    Number of bones pesent in human cranium is :    
    (A) 8    (B) 10
    (C) 12    (D) 16


62.    The total number of ribs in human body is :
    (A) 10    (B) 12
    (C) 24    (D) 36


63.    Number of bones present in forelimb of human 
    (A) 30    (B) 32    (C) 35    (D) 40


64.    Patellar groove is found on which bone :
    (A) Femur    (B) Tibio-fibula
    (C) Depression between femur and tibio-fibula
    (D) Tarsus


65.    Greater trochanter occurs in :
    (A) Humerus    (B) Radius
    (C) Ulna        (D) Femur


66.    Sella turcica is :
    (A) Depression of long bone
    (B) Ridge over a bone
    (C) Depression in the skull in the area of putuitary gland
    (D) Ridge in the skull over the area of pituitary gland


67.    Ribs are attached to :
    (A) Scapula    (B) Sternum
    (C) Clavicle    (D) Ilium


68.    In humans, coccyx is formed by the fusion of vertebrae :
    (A) 3        (B) 4    
    (C) 5        (D) 6


69.    Vertebro-arterial canal occurs in :
    (A) Cervical vertebrae    (B) Lumbar vertebae
    (C) Thoracis vertrae    (D) Sacral vertebrae


70.    Which vertebra has the odontoid process :
    (A) 7th vertebra of Frog
     (B) Second vertebra of Frog
    (C) Second cervical vertebra of mammal
    (D) Second thoracic vertebra of mammal


71.    In human beings, the second cervical vertebra helps in rotatory movements of head through knob-like process called :
    (A) Prezygapohysis    (B) Postzygapolysis
    (C) Postzygapohysis    (D) Odontoid process


72.    Pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle and limb bones constitute :
    (A) Visceral skeleton    (B) Outer skeleton
    (C) Axial skeleton
    (D) Appendicular skeleton


73.    Ilium is part of :  
    (A) Small intestine    (B) Pectoral girdle
    (C) Pulmonary tract    (D) Pelvic girdle


74.    Glenoid cacity is found in :
    (A) Pelvic girdle     (B) Skull
    (C) Pectoral girdle    (D) Sternum


75.    Joint between bones of human skull is :
    (A) Hinge joint    (B) Synovial joint
    (C) Cartilaginous joint    (D) Fibrous joint


76.    Acromion process is part of 
    (A) Vertebral column     (B) Pelvic girdle
    (C) Femur    (D) Pectoral girdle


77.    Head of humerus is articulated with pectoral girdle by a joint :
    (A) Hinge    (B) Ball and socket
    (C) Immovable    (D) Pivot joint


78.    Sesamoid bone is derived from :
    (A) Cartilage    (B) Areolar tissue
    (C) Tendon    (D) Ligament


79.    Surface for attachment of tongue is 
    (A) Palatine    (B) Sphenoid
    (C) Pterygiod    (D) Hyoid apparatus


80.    Inter-articular disc occurs in :
    (A) Wall of heart    (B) Wall of liver
    (C) Pubic symphysis            (D) In between two vertebrae 


81.    Pelvic girdle consists of :
    (A) Ilium
    (B) Ilium and ischium
    (C) Ilium, ischium and pubis
    (D) Ischium and pubis


82.    Joint between atlas and axis is :
    (A) Pivot joint    (B) Saddle joint
    (C) Angular joint    (D) Hinge joint


83.    Coracoid is component of :
    (A) Fore limb    (B) Skull
    (C) Scapula    (D) Pelvic girdle


84.    Olecranon process occurs in :
    (A) Femur    (B) Radius
    (C) Humerus     (D) Ulna


85.    Sutural joints are present between :
    (A) Thumb and metatarsal
    (B) Humerus and radio-ulna
    (C) Parietals of skull
    (D) Glenoid cavity and pectoral girdle


86.    Joint of sternum and ribs is :
    (A) Cartilaginous     (B) Fibrous joint
    (C) Angular joint    (D) Hinge joint


87.    Coccygeal bone occurs in :
    (A) Skull     (B) Pectoral girdle
    (C) Vertebral column    (D) Pelvic girdle


88.    Synovial fluid is present in
    (A) Spinal cavity     (B) Cranial cavity
    (C) Freely movable joints
    (D) Fixed joints


89.    Zygomatic is part of :
    (A) Pelvic girdle    (B) Skull
    (C) Pectoral girdle    (D) Vertebral column


90.    Synovial fluid is secreted by :
    (A) Blood     (B) Cartilage
    (C) Bone
    (D) Synovial membrane


91.    Ilium of pelvic girdle is articulated with sacrum for :
    (A) Bending    (B) Jumping
    (C) Support    (D) Running


92.    Which one is a ball and socket joint :
    (A) Knee joint    (B) Elbow joint
    (C) Humerus and pectoral girdle
    (D) Skull and atlas


  1.    B    2.    B    3.    A    4.    C    5.    D    6.    A    7.    A    8.    D    9.    A    10.    D    11.    B    12.    C    13.    C    14.    B    15.    A    16.    D    17.    C    18.    A    19.    D    20.    C    21.    D    22.    B    23.    C    24.    A    25.    A    26.  B  27.    C    28.    C 29.    D    30.    B    31.    A    32.    A    33.    C    34.    A    35.    C    36.    B    37.    B    38.    C    39.    B    40.    B    41.    B    42.    B    43.    A    44.    A    45.    D    46.    D    47.    A    48.    A    49.    B    50.    B    51.  D  52.    A    53.    B    54.    C    55.    C    56.    A  57.    A    58.    B    59.    D    60.    B    61.    A    62.    C    63.    A    64.    A    65.    D    66.    C    67.    B    68.    B    69.    A    70.    C    71.    D    72.    D    73.    D    74.    C    75.    D    76.    D    77.    B    78.    C    79.    D    80.    D    81.    C    82.    A    83.    C    84.    D 85.    C    86.    A    87.    C    88.    C    89.    B    90.    D    91.    C    92.    C    
 

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