NCERT 10th Class Science Chapter Periodic Classification of Elements
Before the beginning of the eighteenth century when there are only 30 elements known, it was easier to study and remember their properties. In later years when number of elements discovered were increased then it became difficult to study them. So scientist fell the need of simple method to facilitale the study of the properties of various elements and their compounds. After numerous attempts they got success & elements were arranged in such manner that similar elements were grouped together and different elements were separated. This arrangement of elements is known as classification of elements which led to the formation of periodic table.
Periodic table may be defined as "the arrangement of all the known elements according to their properties in such way that the elements of similar properties are grouped together in a tabular form."
Earlier attempts of classification of elements (development of periodic table) :
Earlier attempts to classify the elements resulted in grouping as metals and non-metals. Later on they were classified on the basis of their atomic masses.
Dobereiner Triads rule
In 1817, Johann walfgang dobereiner. A German chemist, arranged the elements as group of three elements and in a manner that the atomic mass of middle element was roughly the average of the atomic masses of the other two elements of the triad.
Example : Element : Lithium, Sodium and Potassium.
Atomic mass 7 23 39
Average of the atomic masses of Lithium and Potassium is only three triads could be arranged in this manner at that time. They were :
Short coming of Dobereiner's triads rule
This classification was not found satisfactory as it could be applied to the limited number of elements. Now a days some more triads have been made they are
(i) Potassium Rubidium Cesium
K Rb Cs
(ii) Phosphorus Arsenic Antimony
P As Sb
(iii) Sulphur Selenium Tellurium
S Se Te
(iv) Hydrogen Fluorine Chlorine