ACIDS, BASE AND SALTS
The earliest classification of inorganic compounds including the large number of organic compounds was based on their taste. On this basis of these compounds were classified into acid, bases and salt. We use many such compounds in our daily lives, which are acids, bases and salt. We use curd, pickle, amla, soap and detergents, tamarind, toothpaste etc. We must learn to classify them based on scientific tests.
Test to distinguish between acids and bases
There are many substances, which show one colour or odour in the acidic medium and a different colour or odour in the basic medium. Such substances are called acid base indicators.
A. Indicators showing different colours in acidic and basic medium
a. Litmus solution as indicator is a purple coloured dye extracted from the lichen plant. It is the most commonly used indicator in the science laboratory. In the neutral solution, it has purple colour. In the acidic solution, it turns red whereas in the basic solution it turns blue.
There are two types of litmus solution Blue and Red litmus solution. Red litmus solution is obtained by acidifying the purple litmus extract whereas blue litmus solution is obtained by making the purple litmus extract alkaline. To test whether the given sample is acidic or basic, take few drops of distilled water in a test tube and two drops of blue litmus solution. Add few drops of sample substance that is to be tested. If the blue litmus solution changes into red colour, the substance is acidic.
For instance, lemon juice, vinegar, orange juice, juice of unripe mangoes, tamarind all turn blue litmus solution to red. Thus, they are all acidic substances.
We may repeat the above experiment with red litmus solution. Those substances, which turn red litmus solution into blue colour, are bases. For instance, cucumber, washing soda solution, baking soda solution, bitter gourd etc. turn red litmus solution into blue. Thus, they are bases.
b. Synthetic indicators such as Phenolphthalein and Methyl orange
Methyl orange is the compounds prepared industrially or in the laboratory. There are many such man- made substances, which can act as synthetic indicators.
Phenolphthalein is colourless in neutral solution and in acidic solution but turns pink in basic solution.
Methyl orange is of orange colour in neutral solution, red in acidic solution and yellow in basic solution. Ask your teacher to help you classify various substance using these indicators.
B. Indicators giving different odours in acidic and basic medium. (Olfactory indicators)
Take two test tubes. Mark them test tube ‘A’ and test tube ‘B’. Add some hydrochloric acid in test tube
‘A’ and some Sodium Hydroxide in test tube ‘B’. Record the odour, of clove oil. Now add few drops of clove oil in each test tube and shake it gently. Smell the sample in test tube ‘A’ and ‘B’. Record the odour of each test tube. You will notice that the odour of acid and base after addition of clove oil is different. Ask your teacher to help you demonstrate the experiment in the laboratory.
Repeat the experiment (a). Take another two test tubes and mark them ‘A’ and ‘B’. Add some acid ‘A’ and sodium hydroxide in ‘B’. Add some vanilla essence in each test tube (A) and (B). Vanilla retains its smell in acidic medium but looses its smell in basic medium.
C. Natural Indicators
Turmeric (Haldi), red cabbage, China rose peals are the natural indicators.
Turmeric is yellow in colour. Turmeric leaves a yellow stain on clothes. When such stain is washed with detergents, the stain becomes brownish red. Detergents have the base called sodium
China rose petals
act as a natural indicator. China rose indicator turns magenta (dark pink) in acidic solutions. It turns green in basic solutions and does not show any colour change in neutral solution
An acid (from the Latin acidus meaning sour) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic. Acids are sour in taste. Acids are of organic and inorganic nature. Acids found in plants and animals are organic in nature.
are called mineral acids. They are prepared by dissolving mineral oxides in water.
Sulphur dioxide dissolves in water to form sulphurous or sulphuric acid. Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. Hydrogen chloride dissolves in water to form hydrochloric acid etc.
a. Hydrochloric Acid b. Nitric Acid
c. Phosphoric Acid d. Sulphuric Acid.
Acids are generally sour in taste. (For example, the sour taste of lemon juice is due to citric acid.)
Strong or concentrated acids or their fumes often produce a stinging feeling on mucous membranes.
Change the colour of pH indicators as follows: turn blue litmus and methyl orange red, turn phenol- phthalein colourless.
React with metals to produce a metal salt and hydrogen.
React with metal carbonates to produce water, CO2 and a salt.
React with metal hydroxides and metal oxides to produce water and a salt.
Conduct electricity, depending on the degree of dissociation in aqueous solution. Car batteries use acids in them.
Acids can be gases, liquids, or solids. Respective examples (at 20ºC and one atm) are hydrogen chloride, sulphuric acid and citric acid. Solutions of acids in water are liquids, such as hydrochloric acid-an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride. At 20ºC and one atm, linear carboxylic acids are liquids and solids beginning from decanoic acid (ten carbon atoms). Perfumed carboxylic acids, the simplest being benzoic acid, are solids.
Strong acids and some concentrated weak acids are corrosive and can cause severe burns even after short contact.
Strong bases, like strong acids, attack living tissue and cause serious burns. They react differently to skin than acids do, so while strong acids are corrosive, we say that strong bases are caustic (corro- sive). Bases may also be weak bases such as ammonia, which is used for cleaning. Arrhenius bases are water-soluble. An alkali is a special example of a base, where in an aqueous environment; hydrox- ide ions (also viewed as OH–) are donated. Bases, which dissolve in water, are called alkalis. Bases are alkalis but not all alkalis are bases.
The notion of a base as a concept in chemistry was first introduced by the French chemist Guillaume Francois Rouelle in 1754. He noted that acids, which in those days were mostly volatile liquids (like acetic acid), turned into solid salts only when combined with specific substances. These substances form a concrete base for the salt and hence the name.
Some general properties of bases include:
Slippery or soapy feel on fingers, due to specification of the lipids in human skin
Concentrated or strong bases are caustic (corrosive) on organic matter and react violently with acidic substances
Aqueous solutions (bases dissolved in water) or molten bases dissociate in ions and conduct electricity
Reactions with indicators: bases turn litmus paper blue and phenolphthalein pink
In chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept hydrogen ions. A base is also often referred to as an alkali if OH– ions (hydroxide ions) are involved. Examples of simple bases are sodium hydroxide and ammonia. Although ammonia does not directly contain an OH– group in its, formula, it produces one in water i.e. Ammonium hydroxide. All compound containing hydroxide are bases. For example, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Potassium hydroxide (KOH), Magnesium
hydroxide [Mg(OH) ], Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) ] etc.
Bases can be thought of as the chemical opposite of acids. A reaction between an acid and base is called neutralization. Bases and acids are seen as opposites because the effect on an acid is to increase the hydronium ion (H O+) concentration in water, whereas bases reduce this concentration. Bases react with acids to produce water and salts (or their solutions). Acids react with bases to form salt and water.
Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form common salt called sodium chloride and water.
This reaction supports neutralization
Farmers use slaked lime [calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH )] or quick lime [calcium oxide, CaO] to neutralise
the acidic effects of soil in their farms.
In case the soil is basic, organic matter is used to release or neutralise the bases.
Bacterias are continuously produced in our mouth, which causes tooth decay by making acids. Basic nature of toothpaste and toothpowder prevents tooth decay by neutralizing the acidic effects.
A small amount of hydrochloric acid available in our stomach helps digesting food and kills the germs.
Its excess production in stomach causes indigestion. To neutralize the effects of acid magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) tablets are used.
Baking Soda [Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO ] is used to treat bee sting or ant sting. Their sting release formic acid on the skin is neutralized by bases.
A salt, in chemistry, is defined as the product formed from the neutralization reaction of acids and bases.
There are several varieties of salts. Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are basic salts and salts that produce hydronium ions in water are acid salts. Neutral salts are those that are neither acid nor basic salts.
When salts are dissolved in water, they are called electrolytes, and are able to conduct electricity, a property that is shared with molten salts. Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Magnesium Chloride (MgCl ), Calcium
Carbonate (CaCO ), Calcium Sulphate (CaSO ) etc. are some examples of salt. Not all salt are edible.
Salts can be poisonous to the body as well. Not all salts are salty. Salt that we add to our food is
Sodium Chloride (NaCl).
(A) Answer the following in not more than 20 words.
Q.1 Classify the following substances into acidic and basic substances.
Tomato juice, soap solution, toothpaste, lemon juice, vinegar
Q.2 Name three mineral acids and give their formulae.
Q.3 Define acids
(D) Complete the following.
Q.1 The sour things we eat contain…..
Q.2 Ammonium hydroxide is an…..
Q.3 An acid is……by a base
Q.4 An antacid generally contains……
Q.5 Acid + base +
Q.4 Define bases
Q.5 What are soluble bases called ? Give two examples.
Q.6 Define neutral substances and indicators.
(B) Answer the following in not more than 40 words.
Q.1 Name an acidic gas which is discharged into the atmosphere on the burning of fuels like coal and natural gas. How is this gas formed ?
Q.2 What are the general properties of basic substances ?
(C) Answer the following in not more than 100 words.
Q.1 Write the properties of an acid
Q.2 Describe an activity to show the effect of an acid on carbonates and hydrogencarbonates
Q.3 What is acid rain ? How is it formed ? Mention three bad effects of acid rain.
Q.4 Write a note on the uses of bases.
Q.5 Why factory waste is ne utralised before disposing it into the water bodies?
(A) Choose the correct option.
Q.1 Acids are formed when
(A) metals combine with oxygen
(B) oxides of nonmetals dissolve in water
(C) metals react with water
(D) bases dissolve in water
Q.2 Hydrochloric acid can be neutralised by
(A) nitric acid (B) sulphuric acid
(C) citric acid (D) sodium hydroxide
Q.3 A soap solution is
(A) acidic (B) alkaline
(C) neutral (D) None
Q.4 In a neutralisation reaction, an acid reacts with a base to give
(A) another acid
(B) another base
(C) another acid and another base
(D) a salt and water
(B) Match the columns A and B
1. A B
(i) In storage batteries
(ii) Found in yoghurt
(c) (d) (e)
Sulphuric acid Lactic acid Acetic acid
(iii) In making vinegar (iv) As bathroom acid (v) Vitamin C
2. A B
(a) Sodium iodate
(i) A food preservative (b) Calcium sulphate
(ii) Used as a fertiliser (c) Bleaching powder
(iii) Present in plaster of Paris
(d) Ammonium sulphate
(iv) A disinfectant
(e) Sodium benzoate (v) A supplement to common salt
Q.1 Are most salts neutral ?
Q.2 Are soluble bases called alkalis ?
Q.3 Calcium carbonate when heated gives calcium oxide, which is a base. Will the same base be formed when calcium chloride is heated ?
Q.4 Lemon juice gives carbon dioxide with baking soda. Will it give carbon dioxide with marble too ?
Q.5 Carbon when burnt in air gives an acidic gas.Does sulphur when burnt in air give and an acidic gas ?
(A) Choose the correct option.
1.C 2.D 3.B 4.D
(B) Match columns.
1. (a) – (iv) (b) – (v) (c) – (i) (d) – (ii) (e) – (iii)
2. (a) – (v) (b) – (iii) (c) – (iv) (d) – (ii) (e) – (i)
1. Which of the following is a strong acid ?
(A) Lactic acid (B) Ascorbic acid
(C) Sulphuric acid (D) Formic acid
2. Which of the following is a strong base ?
(A) Ammonium hydroxide (B) Sodium hydroxide (C) Magnesium hydroxide (D) Copper hydroxide
3. Which of the following compounds is an acid?
4. Which of the following is not a base?
(A) KOH (B) ZnO
5. Which of the following is a strong acid?
6. Which of the following is a dibasic acid?
(A) HCI (B) H PO
7. Potash alum is a
(A) simple salt (B) complex salt
(C) acid salt (D) double salt
8. Acetic acid is a weak acid because
(A) its aqueous solution is acidic
(B) it is highly ionized
(C) it is weakly ionized
(D) it contains –COON group
9. Dolomite is
(A) an acid salt (B) a mixed salt
(C) a normal salt (D) a double salt
10. Which of the following can form more than one acid salt?
(A) CH COOH (B) H PO
(C) CH CH COOH (D) ZnO