H C VERMA PHYSICS BOOK SOLUTIONS CENTRE OF MASS
1. Four particles A, B, C and D having masses m, 2m, 3m and 4m respectively are placed in order at the corners of a square of side a. Locate the centre of mass.
2. Two identical uniform rods AB and CD, each of length L are jointed to form a T-shaped frame as shown in figure. Locate the centre of mass of the frame. The centre of mass of a uniform rod is at the middle point of the rod.
Sol. Let the mass of each rod be m. Take the centre C of the rod AB as the origin and CD as the Y-axis. The rod AB has mass m and its centre of mass is at C. For the calculation of the centre of mass of the combined system, AB may be replaced by a point particle of mass m placed at the point C. Similarly the rod CD may be replaced by a point particle of mass m placed at the centre E of the rod CD. Thus, the frame is equivalent to a system of two particles of equal masses m each, placed at C and E. The centre of mass of this pair of particles will be at the middle point F of CE.
The centre of mass of the frame is, therefore, on the rod CD at a distance L/4 from C.
3. Two charged particles of masses m and 2m are placed a distance d apart on a smooth horizontal table. Because of their mutual attraction, they move towards each other and collide. Where will the collision occur with respect to the initial positions?
Sol. As the table is smooth, there is no friction. The weight of the particles and the normal force balance each other as there is no motion in the vertical direction. Thus, taking the two particles as constituting the system, the sum of the external forces acting on the system is zero. The forces of attraction between the particles are the internal forces as we have included both the particles in the system. Therefore, the centre of mass of the system will have no acceleration.
Initially, the two particles are placed on the table and their velocities are zero. The velocity of the centre of mass is, therefore, zero. As time passes, the particles move, but the cenre of mass will continue to be at the same place. At the time of collision, the two particles are at one place and the centre of mass will also be at that place. As the centre of mass does not move, the collision will take place at the centre of mass.
The centre of mass will be at a distance 2d/3 from the initial position of the particle of mass m towards the other particle and the collision will take place there.
4. Each of the blocks shown in figure has mass 1 kg. The rear block moves with a speed of
2 m/s towards the front block kept at rest. The spring attached to the front block is light and has a spring constant 50 N/m. Find the maximum compression of the spring.