Class 8 Social Science Parliamentary Government and Executive
Powers and Functions of Parliament
1. Legislative Powers :- The Parliament has wide powers in the field of Legislation. It can legislate on those subjects which have been given in the Union List. Besides, Parliament can make laws on those subjects which have been given in the concurrent list. If there is any controversy, the law made by the parliament will prevail.
2. Financial Powers :- Parliament Controls national finances. The annual budget is passed by the Parliament. No tax can be levied by the government without the approval of Parliament. Government cannot spend any money without getting parliament's sanction for it.
3. Control over the Executive :- Parliaments all over the world can criticise and exercise some control over those who run the government. In those countries which have adopted parliamentary form of government, the Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament and remains in office as long as it enjoys its confidence. In India, the ministry remains in office as long as parliament has confidence in it. If the parliament loses confidence in the council of ministers the government, including the Prime Minister, has to resign.
4. Amendment of the Constitution :- In India a part of the constitution can be amended by the Parliament alone. For the remaining portion, its ratification by at least fifty percent states is required.
5. Judicial Powers :- Parliament enjoy certain judicial powers also. it can remove the President from office by impeachment. It is also empowered to remove the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. it can take action against any member for violating the discipline of the House.
6. Electoral Powers :- Members of Parliament take part in the election of the President and Vice-President. Speaker of Lok Sabha is also elected by the members of Lok Sabha.
Mutual Relation Between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
Indian Parliament is a Bicameral legislature i.e. it consists of two Houses known as Lok Sabha
(House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
1. Passing of Ordinary Laws :- Ordinary bills can be introduced in either house and needs to be passed by both the houses, before it is sent for the approval of the president. If there is a difference of opinion between the two houses for passing a bill, the decision is taken in a joint session of both the houses.
2. Passing of Money Bills :- Money bills or budget can be introduced only in Lok Sabha. If Lok Sabha passes the budget or any money bill, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it, it can only delay if for 14 days.
3. Control Over the Executive :- The Council of Ministers remains in office as long as it enjoys majority in Lok Sabha. Lok Sabha enjoy the power to pass a vote of no confidence against the majority.
4. Special powers of Rajya Sabha :-
(i) It can declare any 'state subject' as of national importance.
(ii) Rajya Sabha can pass a resolution for the establishment of new All India Administrative Service.
Executive is that organ of the government which enforces (executes) the laws passed by the legislature and runs the administration according to those laws. It stands for all those functionaries that run the administration. It includes Head of the State (President), Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers and all the civil servants.
Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
• The Prime Minis