LIVING ORGANISMS & THEIR SURROUNDINGS

INTRODUCTION

The living organisms as well as the nonliving things are made of matter. Anything that is made of matter has mass and occupies space. Thus, everything around us, whether living or nonliving, has mass and occupies space. The smallest particles of matter are molecules. These particles constitute living beings and nonliving things. But that is where the similarity between the living and nonliving ends. The structural unit of water is a molecule of water. A cup of water is simply billions of molecules of water. This is not true for living organism. Though a living being is also made of molecules, just those molecules put together do not make an organism. The most basic unit, or structural unit, of an organism is the cell. Every living organism starts from a cell, which divides and redivides to give rise to the organism.
 

HABITAT AND ADAPTATION

(a) Habitat :
The term habitat refers to the surroundings where organisms live. Every habitat is home for a certain living creature. Plants and animals have different features that help them to survive in their own habitat.
The components in a habitat are broadly classified into two types. they are biotic and abiotic.
Biotic components include all the livings organisms in a habitat. Abiotic components include all the non-living things in a habitat. These include air, rocks, water, sunlight and heat. All livings things depend on the abiotic components for all their needs. The abiotic components are very useful for the survival of the biotic components in a habitat. For example, sprouting is the first step where a new plant grows from a seed. The sprouting such as air, water, light and heat.
· The population of some species of turtles has declined due to the change in the earth’s temperature.
· Some popular theories believe that dinosaurs became extinct because of the changes in the earth’s temperature millions of years ago.
· Habitat can be terrestrial or aquatic :
The surroundings where organisms live is called a habitat. The organisms depend for their food, water, air, shelter and other needs on their habitat. Habitat means a dwelling place (a home). Several kinds of plants and animals may share the same habitat.
The plants and animals that live on land are said to live in terrestrial habitats. Some examples of terrestrial habitats are forests, grasslands, deserts, coastal and mountain regions. On the other hand, the habitats of plants and animals that live in water are called aquatic habitats.
 
(b) Adaptation :
Plants and animals develop certain features or certain habits that help them survive in their surroundings, and this is known as adaption. Different living creatures adapt to their habitats in different ways. For example fish have gills that help them to live in water and use the oxygen dissolve in it. Plants that live in water have special tissues that help to take in dissoved gas from water. For example the ulva has ribbon-like leaves. It takes thousands of years for a livings being to adapt to its habitat.
Adaptation in different habitats :
 
[A] Terrestrial Habitats :
 
(i) Deserts : Desert is a water deplete area so basically plants and animals are adapted for 
little less of water.
· Desert animals include camel, rats and snakes.
· To stay away from the intense heat during the day, rats and snakes stay i
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11 thoughts on “LIVING ORGANISMS & THEIR SURROUNDINGS; ”

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Juhi commented 12 Aug, 2020, 04:34 AM
the relation between the living organism as well as the organism and their surrounding is called
Aryan commented 23 Sep, 2020, 03:35 AM
Hy