A large, low-lying area used to dispose garbage is known as a dump. A garbage dump is also used as landfill. Garbage collectors
collect waste and then dispose it at garbage disposals. Garbage dumps have files, cockroaches and mosquitoes, and later turn into breading
grounds for micro-organisms that may cause diseases. That is why these garbage dumps are usually located on the outskirts of a city.

(a) Components of garbage - Garbage has useful and non-useful components :

Useful garbage components are those that can be decayed easily. The process of decaying is known as composting.
Useful garbage components are fruit and vegetable waste, plant and animal waste, tea leaves, coffee grounds and paper.
These useful components of garbage are converted into manure in the soil.
Non-useful garbage components include polythene bags, plastics, glass and aluminum foils.
These take longer to decay. Decaying of these non-useful components is known as decomposition.
When non-useful components decay, they release harmful gases that damage the environment.
To avoid the adverse impact, these garbage items are sent for recycling. For example, when leaves
bum, they release harmful gases and causes air pollution. Moreover, they lead to asthma and lung diseases.
That is why leaves should be buried so as to convert them into manure.


The process of preparing compost with the help of red worms is called vermicomposting. The red worm is a type of earthworm that lives in the soil rich in organic matter. which is a combination of nitrogen-rich and carbon-rich material with plenty of moisture and microbes.
· Method of Vermicompositing.
· A vermicomposting pit is made with a wooden box or big cement rings.
· A mesh is spread at the bottom of the pit.
· Vegetable waste, fruit waste paper which is not shiny or coated with plastic, is spread over the mesh
· Water is sprinkled to create moisture so that the redworms can live.
· A vermicomposting pit takes nearly two to four weeks to completely convert waste into manure.
· Waste material that is rich in oils, salt, meat and vinegar stops the growth of red worms.
· These red worms have a special structure called gizzards with which they grind food material.
A red worm eats food equal to its weight every day. Red worms do not survive in too hot or too 
cold conditions.

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