Class 8 Social Science Marginalised Groups & Social Justice

Marginalised Groups & Social justice

Who are Marginalised?
    Marginalised groups are those sections of the society which have remained ignored in the past due to several social and economic causes. The chief groups among these include the scheduled castes, the scheduled tribes, other backward classes and the minorities.
#    Scheduled Castes: They are the castes which are treated as untouchables in the caste hierarchy of India. The constitution of India defines the scheduled castes as the ones who were called as untouchable in the society.
#    Scheduled Tribes (Adivasis) : The people or castes which resided in the forest and hilly areas and were socially discarded and were economically backward are called scheduled tribes.
#    Backward Classes : The term ‘Backward Classes’ does not mean the classes which are backward. Rather, it is a name given to the weaker sections of the society other than Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
#    Minorities : The communities whether religious or lingual who have less number of people of their own
sect and religion in a particular region or regions.
    The marginalised are those groups of people or communities who speak a different language, follow different customs or belong to a different religious group from the majority community. The marginalised groups have the sense of difference and exclusion and have no access to the resources and the opportunities to assert their rights. They are the groups who are powerless and disadvantaged than the powerful and dominant group

Adivasis
    The ‘original inhabitants’, is the actual meaning of Adivasis. They are the communities who live in the forest and their generations also live in the forests without any touch of modernisation. There are many areas where Adivasis are prominently found in India such as Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro and Bhilai. There is not a single Adivasi group but a number of different Adivasi groups. Adivasis are found in large number in the areas like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and in North-eastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.
    Adivasis do not practice religions like Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, etc. They practice tribal religion in which they worship their ancestors, village, natural spirits, mountain spirits, river spirits, animal spirits, etc. The Adivasi groups are also influenced with the other religions such as Buddhism, Vaishnavism, Bhaktism, etc. They have their own languages and their own music and folk system in which they carry themselves. Adivasis are mainly seen as very different as compared to other people living in towns, villages    and they are in large numbers. People believe that Adivasis are very rigid in following their own culture. They are perceived as people who only dance in the colourful costumes and get their livelihood from the forests. People believe that Adivasis are exotic, primitive and backward. Adivasis today are the marginal and powerless communities.

Adivasis Demands and the 1989 Act
    The 1989 Act is still important as it defends their right to occupy land which was theirs traditionally. Under this Act, activists who have forcibly encroached upon tribal land should be punished under this law. It promises that land belonging to tribal people cannot be sold to or bought by non-tribal people. The constitution guarantees the right of tribal people to re-possess their land.
    C. K. Janu, an Adivasi ac
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