Class 8 Social Science Agriculture

    Important terms

=    Agriculture: The art and science of a cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forest. 
=    Commercial Agriculture: Farming in which farmer grow the crop with the aim of selling it .in the market.: 
=    Dry Farming : Dry farming is adopted. to scanty rain fall areas. Such types of crops are grown which require less irrigation facilities. 
=    Extensive Agriculture : Agriculture in which the farmer tries to get the greatest out put by bringing more and more new land areas under cultivation. 
=    Green Revolution: A break through in seed technology which has led to a considerable increase in agricultural production especially in wheat as a result of better inputs. 
=    Horticulture: Intensive cultivation of vegtetables, fruits and flowers.
=    Intensive Agriculture: Increase in the agriculture production by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs. 
=    Kharif season: It is an agriculiural cropping season from early June to October. Ex. Rice, millets etc. 
=    Plantation Agriculture : A large scale farming of one crop resembling factory production based on capital investment and application of modern science and technology in cultivating, processing and- marketing the fmal products. 
=    Rabi season: It is an agricultural cropping season from November to May e.g. wheat, gram, oilseeds etc. 
=    Minimum Support Price: It is the,minimum!ind reasonable price fixed by the government at which-the farmer can sell his produce either in the open market or to the government agencies. 
=    Shifting Agriculture : It is that type of agriculture in which farmers clear forest land and use it following crops. When the fertility of the soil decreases the farmer shifts to new land. 
=    Subsistence Agriculture: Farming in which the main production is consumed by the farmers house hold. 
=    Blue Revolution : A package programme introduced to increase the production of fish and fish product. 
=    Sericulture: Rearing of silk-worms to produce raw silk. 
=    Zaid: It is a short season summer crop where fruits like watermelon and vegetables like cucumber are grown.
=    Viticultive : It means cultivation of grapes.

    Agriculture 
        The term agriculture is derived from two latin words, ager· meaning land and cultur meaning cultivation. In modern days agriculture also includes animal husbandry, Forestry and Pisiculture. 
    Definition : 
    The art and science of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including fishing and forest. 
    Importance of Agriculture: 
    1.    Two thirds of the population is dependent on agriculture. 
    2.    It generates large scale employment. 
    3.    It provides raw materials to many agro based industries. 
    4.    Export of agricultural products earns valuable foreign exchange. It contributes to 26 % of GDP. 

    Types of Agriculture in India 

=    Primitive Subsistence Farming Shifting Cultivation Nomadi Herding 
    (a) This shifting cultivation on small patch
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