NCERT 6TH CLASS SCIENCE CHAPTER FIBER TO FABRIC

INTRODUCTION
Any fabric (cloth) is made up of yarns arranged together which are further made up of still thinner strands called fibres. Thread like part in animal and vegetable tissues is called fibres. They are the raw materials that are long, strong and pliable enough to be spun into yarns and woven into fabrics. 
 
CLASSIFICATION OF FIBRES 
Natural, semi-synthetic and artificial (synthetic) fibres. 
(A) Natural Fibres : 
Fibres obtained from plants are called plant fibres and fibres obtained from animals are called animal fibres. Plant and animal fibres together are called natural fibres. For example cotton, jute and silk. 
The Fibres of some fabrics such as cotton, jute, silk and wool are obtained from plants. Wool and silk fibres are obtained from animals. Wool is obtained from the fleece of sheep or goat. It is also obtained from the hair of rabbits. yak and camels, Silk fibre is drawn from the cocoon of silkworm.
 
(i) Cotton : It is cultivated where warm and sunny weather stays for at least half of the year. Cotton plants require warm temperature ranging between 21° C to 27°C with sunny and dry weather. By the time of harvesting rainfall between 50 cm to 80 cm is another conducive condition for its growth. Black soil, which has the ability to retain moisture is best suited for cotton cultivation. The fruits of the cotton plant (Cotton bolls) are about the size of a lemon. After maturing, the bolls burst open and the seeds covered with cotton fibres. Cotton is usually picked by hand. Fibres are then separated from the seeds by combining. This process is called ginning of cotton. Ginning was traditionally done by hand. These days Machines are also used for ginning.
 
(a) Cotton plants (b) cotton balls
• Cotton is used in the manufacture of fish nets, coffee filters, tents and in book binding. 
• The cottonseed, which remains after the cotton is separated from its seeds or ginned, is used to produce cotton seed oil, which after refining can be consumed like any other vegetable oil. 
• The cotton seed meal (khal) that is left is generally fed to livestock. 
• In India, main cotton producing states are Maharashtra, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Gujarat. Sourthern United states, China and India are the largest producer of cotton. 
 
(ii) Jute: It is a long, soft, shiny plant and Is one of the cheapest natural fibres. Jute fibres are composed of cellulose and lignin. 
Jute is a rainy season crop, grown best in warm, humid climate.Jute plant requires temperature ranging from 17°C to 40°C and rain fall from 120 mm to 150 mm 
Almost 85% of the world's jute CUltivation is concentrated in deltas of Ganga 
Harvesting of jute plant is done at flowering state. The stalks are cut close to the ground. They are then tied into bundles and soaked in water for 20 days. It softens the tissues and permits the fibres to be separated, The fibres are then stopped from the stalks in long strands and washed in clear, running water. Then they are spread on a that ched roof to dry. 
Jute is said to have more than a thousand uses. It is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton; not only for its wider cultivation. but also for its uses. 
 
• Jute is used to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw known as Bombyx mori, which feeds on mulberry cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. Jute leaves. Female moth lays eggs , which hatch larvae fibres are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, after 20 days. The larvae make their cocoons
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