Class 8 Social Science Judiciary
Important Terms And concepts
= Judicial Review : It means the power of the Supreme Court to review the laws passed by the legislature if it believes that there has been a violation of the basic structure of the Constitution.
= Compensation : Payment in cash or kind to cover up the losses.
= Separation of Powers : It means the executive and legislature cannot interfere in the work of the judiciary.
= Jurisdiction : It is the power that a court of law enjoys to pronounce legal judgement.
= Law : It means a rule of human conduct which is binding upon all the members of a society. Laws are generally made by the legislature of our country.
= Appellate Jurisdiction : This is the power of the superior court to hear and decide an appeal against the judgement of lower courts.
= Original Jurisdiction : It extends to such cases as come directly before the Supreme Court and over which Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction.
= Single and Unified Judiciary : Single and unified judiciary represents a hierarchy of courts with a Supreme Court at the top. In this system there is complete uniformity in the administration of justice.
= Acquit : The person who is declared not guilty of the crime for which he was tried by the court.
= Eviction : An act under which the person is asked to evict (leave) the land or home where he/she is living in.
= Violation : Not following the law or breaking a law. It also refers to the breach or encroachment of Fundamental Rights.
= The Supreme Court was established on 26th January, 1950. Located in Delhi.
= High Court were first established in the three presidency cities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1862. High Court of Delhi came up in 1966.
= Presently there are 21 High Courts. Punjab and Haryana share a common High Court at Chandigarh.
= Seven north-east states have a common High Court at Guwahati.
= The judiciary occupies an important place, in the Indian federal system.
= Union and state governments function simultaneously. The Constitution has divided their jurisdictions through three Lists: the Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List. But there is always a possibility of disputes between the centre and the state or between the state governments. The judiciary is to play a crucial role in such situations.
= The Constitution of India clearly lays down that the dispute between the centre and the state