Class 8 Social Science Judiciary
Important Terms And concepts
= Judicial Review : It means the power of the Supreme Court to review the laws passed by the legislature if it believes that there has been a violation of the basic structure of the Constitution.
= Compensation : Payment in cash or kind to cover up the losses.
= Separation of Powers : It means the executive and legislature cannot interfere in the work of the judiciary.
= Jurisdiction : It is the power that a court of law enjoys to pronounce legal judgement.
= Law : It means a rule of human conduct which is binding upon all the members of a society. Laws are generally made by the legislature of our country.
= Appellate Jurisdiction : This is the power of the superior court to hear and decide an appeal against the judgement of lower courts.
= Original Jurisdiction : It extends to such cases as come directly before the Supreme Court and over which Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction.
= Single and Unified Judiciary : Single and unified judiciary represents a hierarchy of courts with a Supreme Court at the top. In this system there is complete uniformity in the administration of justice.
= Acquit : The person who is declared not guilty of the crime for which he was tried by the court.
= Eviction : An act under which the person is asked to evict (leave) the land or home where he/she is living in.
= Violation : Not following the law or breaking a law. It also refers to the breach or encroachment of Fundamental Rights.
= The Supreme Court was established on 26th January, 1950. Located in Delhi.
= High Court were first established in the three presidency cities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1862. High Court of Delhi came up in 1966.
= Presently there are 21 High Courts. Punjab and Haryana share a common High Court at Chandigarh.
= Seven north-east states have a common High Court at Guwahati.
= The judiciary occupies an important place, in the Indian federal system.
= Union and state governments function simultaneously. The Constitution has divided their jurisdictions through three Lists: the Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List. But there is always a possibility of disputes between the centre and the state or between the state governments. The judiciary is to play a crucial role in such situations.
= The Constitution of India clearly lays down that the dispute between the centre and the states or between states will be resolved by the judiciary .
= The judiciary is also responsible to ensure that the rights of citizens are respected and protected and the powers of the government do not cross the limits prescribed .
= India has a single, unified judicial system for the entire country. The Supreme Court is at the top of the judicial system. There are High Courts at the state level and further below are subordinate courts.&nb