Class 8 Social Science Constitution

Introduction


-    A constitution signifies independence. Every independent country prepares a Constitution of its own.
-    A Constitution lays down the basic structure of the government under which its people are to be governed. It establishes the main organs of the government – the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
-    A constitution not only defines the powers of each organ, it demarcates the responsibilities of each. It regulates the relationship between the three organs and also with the people.
-    A Constitution is a fundamental legal document according to which the government of a country functions.
-    A constitution is superior to all the laws of a country. Every law enacted by the governmental machinery, has to be in conformity with the Constitution.
-    Laws written in the Constitution, which are also called basic laws, act as the source according to which rules and regulations of government of a country are framed.
-    In a democratic country like India, the importance of the Constitution is still more significant. In a democratic government, the citizens participate in the functioning of the government directly or indirectly, government's powers are clearly spelt out and citizens rights are mentioned clearly.

#   Terms to Remember :- 
1.    Constitution :- The term constitution comes from a Latin term which mean 'an important law' a constitution is a body of laws through which a country is governed. It determines and specifies the rights of citizen the powers of the government and how the government should function. It defines the relation between the different organs of government and citizen. Almost all the independent countries in the world today  where democracy monarchy or any other form of government exists, have its own constitution.
2.    Constitution Assembly :-  An assembly of people's representative that writes a constitution for a country.
3.    Constitutional amendment :- A change in the constitution made by the supreme legislative body in a country.
4.    Fundamental Duties :- Duties specified in the constitution which every citizen should fulfil.
5.    Fundamental Rights :- Some basic human rights guaranteed by our constitution for the development of the personalities.
6.    Preamble :- An introductory statement of the constitution stating its aim and philosophy.
7.    Socialism :- System of social organisation in which all factor of production are owned by the government.
8.    Reservation Policy :- The policy of keeping a fixed number of jobs or places in school, colleges, parliament state, assemblies etc. for people who are member of scheduled caste, scheduled tribes or other backward classes.


The Indian Constitution 

ª    How was it framed ? 
#    The Nehru Report (1928) was the first attempt by Indians to frame a full fledged constitution for their country.  The report embodied not only the perspective of the contemporary nationalist opinion but also an outline of a draft constitution for India. 
    The demand for a constitution assembly was for the first time authoritatively conceded by the British Government, though in an indirect way and with important reservation, in what is known as the 'August offer' of 1940.
#    Cabinet Mission :- With the out break of world war II, the national struggle for freedom in India gathered momentum. In July
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